Long-term follow-up of 83 mothers and 51 fathers who had received one of three parent training programs 3 years earlier for their preschoolers' conduct problems. Follow-up results indicated overall improvements in parent reports of the children's behaviors compared to baseline reports. However, only treatment that combined videotape modeling with therapist-led group discussion achieved stable improvements. Evaluation of the "clinical significance" of the treatment programs indicated that, after e years, 25% to 46% of parents and 26% of teachers reported significant child behavior problems. The families whose children were maladjusted were characterized by single-parent status, increased maternal depression, lower social class status, and family history of alcoholism and drug abuse.