Few direct studies have looked at the economic costs of conduct disorder or its consequences. Related studies suggest that costs are high. In the United States the cost for crimes committed by a typical juvenile delinquent (under 18) was estimated at $80,000 - $325,000 ($56,000 - $232,000). Between ages 19 and 24 a typical adult criminal costs a further $1.2m. Victim costs were by the far the greatest part of this total. Dropping out early from school added $243,000 - $388,000 to age 24, heavy drug use a further $150,000 - $360,000. Rescuing a high risk youth from this typical life path was estimated to save $1.7m - $2.3m.