Abstract: In the present study, predictors of persistent conduct problems among children aged 4?8 years were investigated in a randomized controlled trial 1 year after treatment with the Incredible Years parent training program, or combined parent training and child treatment. Data were collected before and after treatment and at a 1-year follow-up. Pre-treatment child characteristics predicting persistent conduct problems in the child at the 1-year follow-up were high levels of internalizing and aggression problems as reported by mothers. The only family characteristic predicting persistence of child conduct problems was having contacts with child protection services. Clinicians and researchers need to closely monitor and identify children with conduct problems not responding to parent training programs. These individuals and their families are likely to need further support.