Incredible Years: Research Library

Parenting a young child with conduct problems: New insights using qualitative methods


What is qualitative research: Why should we do it? After all, isn’t quantitative research the only “legitimate” method of scientific research – objective, verifiable, and methodologically rigorous? Does qualitative research have scientific integrity? Is it reliable? Valid? Generalizable? Can it add anything new to the findings of quantitative research? Is it publishable: After all haven’t psychology journals adhered almost exclusively to quantitative models of research?
These are some of the questions the first author of this paper asked herself when the second author suggested that they undertake a qualitative analysis of parents’ experiences living with their conduct-problem children.

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Parenting intervention in Sure Start services for children at risk of developing conduct disorder: pragmatic randomised controlled trial

Early-onset behavioural problems such as aggression and non-compliance are the best predictors of antisocial and criminal behaviour in adolescence and Randomised controlled trial of a parenting intervention. Untreated, up to 40% of children with early difficulties develop subsequent conduct disorder, including drug misuse, criminal and violent behaviour. Early behavioural difficulties predicting long-term problems are easily identifiable and effective interventions prevent progression into more severe difficulties. There are severe financial costs if conduct disorder is not prevented. Utilisation of health, social, education and legal services is ten times higher for this population, mostly borne by publicly funded services, especially in areas of social exclusion. Parenting behaviour contributes to the establishment of conduct disorder and many children learn, develop, or establish problem behaviours because parents lack, or inconsistently use, key parenting skills9. When ineffective parenting is the problem, cognitive-behaviourally based parenting programmes can provide an effective solution but are more effective with younger children. When both child problems and parenting patterns are less well-established parents can more easily influence their children?s behaviour. One UK government strategy is Sure Start early preventive parenting support for families of pre-school children living in identified high-risk, disadvantaged areas. Since its launch in 2001 ?3.1 billion has been invested in the scheme11. This funding was provided without direction from government about which services should be delivered. As a result, widely varying services were provided, many lacking evidence of effectiveness from randomised trials.

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Parenting Practices and Children’s Socio-Emotional Development: A Study With Portuguese Community Preschool Age Children


A recent and compelling study entitled ‘Neurons to Neighborhoods’, conducted by the Board on Children, Youth, and Families of the Institute of Medicine (USA) calls attention to the importance of early emotional development in young children. Based on a careful review of neuroscience and developmental science, it highlights compelling evidence that a child?s earliest experiences and relationships set the stage for how he or she manages feelings and impulses, and relates to others (Raver & Knitzer, 2002). This paper discusses data from studies of behavioural and emotional problems and prosocial behaviour in a community sample of 362 Portuguese preschool children (age 3 to 6 years) and examine how these problems vary, as hypothesized, with parental practices. Each mother/father completed the Portuguese translation of two measures: Parenting Practices Questionnaire (adapted from the Oregon Social Learning Centre?s discipline questionnaire and revised for young children by Webster-Stratton, Reid and Hammond, 2001); Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (Goodman, 1997). Implications for prevention and intervention, in terms of parenting education and support, and for the development of social policies are discussed. Key words: parental practices; emotional and behavioural problems; prosocial behaviour; preschool; parenting training; parental education; SDQ.

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Parenting Programme for Parents of Children at Risk of Developing Conduct Disorder: Cost-Effective Analysis

Conduct disorder (CD) is estimated to affect 5-10% of children aged 5-15 years in the United Kingdom and the United States. For those children with early onset in pre-school years, CD frequently persists into adulthood, and predicts poor employment prospects, marriage breakdown and self-harming and/or anti-social criminal behaviour. The economic implications of severe behavioural problems in childhood are serious. It has been estimated that by age 28 the costs of publicly resourced services for those with conduct disorder in childhood were 10 times higher (?70,019) than for those with no behavioural problems (?7,423). Parenting is a key determinant in child behaviour. Parents who encourage pro-social behaviour have children with fewer behaviour problems. Parenting-training programmes are effective in helping families with children at risk of developing conduct disorders.

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Parenting Programmes: What works?

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Also of related interest: The ?Spokes? Project: Supporting Parents On Kids Education
Department Of Health Project Funded By The Parenting Initiative?
Authors: Stephen Scott, Reader in Child Health and Behaviour, Institute of Psychiatry, King?s College London and the Maudsley Hospital, and Kathy Sylva, Professor of Educational Psychology, University of Oxford

Executive Summary
Background?
The objective of supporting parents is to enable them to develop a nurturing, stimulating relationship with their child, so they develop the child’s emotional and intellectual well-being. The question arises how best to support parents. This project sought to implement and evaluate a programme to support directly improvement of the quality of the parent-child relationship, rather than address the indirect factors that can stress it.

The consequences of inadequate parenting often lead to child behavioural difficulties and school failure. Without effective intervention, the behaviour problems have a high degree of continuity and lead to behaviours such as theft, violence to persons and property, and use of illegal drugs; disorders such as alcoholism, drug dependence, and antisocial personality disorder. The school failure has a high continuity with unemployment and receipt of state benefits. The children grow up into adults with a high rate of marital violence, family break-up, and abuse of the next generation of children.
These difficulties contribute to a greatly increased economic cost – one recent UK study showed that by the time they are 28 years old, individuals who were antisocial as children cost society ten times more than children without it. There is therefore a need for effective intervention to prevent serious, lifetime social exclusion of children, and strain and distress of parents. To address the need for early intervention, this project operated early, when the children were 5 and 6 years old in primary school.

Nature of Project

This project carried out an innovative community-based intervention to support parents in managing the two sets of child difficulties for which they most frequently seek help, namely behaviour and learning. Its aim was to see whether this parenting support package would improve the functioning of the children at risk for social exclusion, by looking at two crucial outcomes: reduction in antisocial behaviour; and their reading ability, a central skill for coping throughout life.
Implementation questions Question one: Could the groups easily be held in an everyday life venue – the local primary school, so that it could be widely replicated? Question two: Would a substantial proportion of parents with children at risk choose to enrol in the courses? Question three: Would the starting population taken as a whole show improvement? Even if there were useful improvements in those parents who attended most of the course, some would drop out.?

Parent support programme

The intervention package was delivered in 8 primary schools over three school terms. In term 1 there was a basic 12 week parenting course addressing the parent-child relationship and how to handle difficult child behaviour, in term 2 there was a 10 week reading programme, and in term 3 a 6 week combined course.

Term one: Personal development programme This was the basic ?Incredible Years? Webster-Stratton videotape parenting programme, backed up by home visits to maximise effectiveness. The scenes show parents and children in a variety of common situations, with the parents sometimes behaving in a way that leads to the child being calm and obedient, and sometimes in a way which leads the child to be miserable and have tantrums. Through careful observation and group discussion, the elements that led to successful child management were drawn out, and then parents role-played how they would apply these with their own children. They were then given homework to put this into practice during the following week.?

Term two: Intervention to support child literacy development. Professor Sylva and the team devised a new intervention with relatively intensive parental involvement and considerable specific instruction in technique. It centred around engaging maximal parental commitment and giving parents detailed training in how to encourage and shape reading skills in their child. The literacy intervention lasted 10 weeks. Term three: Combined programme This addressed communicating and problem solving with your child, and had a top-up element for literacy. It lasted six weeks.

Results

Sample Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaires (SDQs) were completed on 733 reception and year one children by teachers, representing 99.5% of children in their classes. Parents of 433 children returned SDQs, a rate of 61%. 394 were correctly filled in and usable. A cutoff score was applied, giving 134 or 34% of the sample, who were deemed at risk of social exclusion through a high level of antisocial behaviour. 103 took part. The sample was a typical inner-city, multi-ethnic disadvantaged population. Half of the children were allocated to the parent support programme, the control half were offered an advice helpline. All 8 schools approached were extremely cooperative and welcomed the project.

Attendance by parents allocated to the intervention Personal development programme (term 1) mean attendance was 7 out of a maximum 12 sessions. Literacy programme (term 2) the mean was 6 out of a possible 10 sessions. Combined programme (term 3) the mean was 4 out of a possible 6 sessions?

Child Behaviour?

Antisocial behaviour On the primary outcome, the PACS interview score, there was a significant effect in favour of the intervention group. The effect size was 0.51 standard deviations, substantial for a prevention trial. The reduction in antisocial behaviour corresponds to an improvement for the participants from being within the worst 15% of antisocial children to being outside the most antisocial 35%. The effect size for hyperactivity was also significant, 0.43. Hyperactivity is an important independent risk factor for social exclusion.?

Parent defined problems. Problems parents reported included arguing, disobedience, fighting, whining, spitefulness, jealousy etc. The intervention group showed a significant improvement compared to the controls, with an effect size of 0.64.?

Eyberg Child Behaviour Inventory.

The Intensity Score, which is a measure of the frequency of difficult behaviours, reduced significantly more in the intervention group, with an effect size of 0.28.?

Parent Satisfaction 93% of parents said they were well or extremely satisfied with the programme.

Child Literacy?

The intervention group gained seven months in reading skills, an effect size of 0.43. This result held up unchanged after multiple regression correction for age and gender. Race, parent education, parent income, and child age and gender did not affect degree of change in the intervention group compared to the control group, suggesting that the programme is robust and suited to disadvantaged populations.

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Parents and Teachers Working Together


School-based social-emotional learning programs are cost saving for the public sector, with education services likely to recoup the cost of the intervention in five years. Lack of investment in well-being (mental health) promotion in schools is likely to lead to significant costs for society. The Incredible Years is a good example of an evidence-based intervention that can “go to scale”, and help parents and teachers work together to achieve common goals.

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Parents, Teachers, and Therapists Using Child-Directed Play Therapy and Coaching Skills to Promote Children’s Social and Emotional Competence and Build Positive Relationships

If left untreated, early-onset conduct problems (e.g., high rates of aggression, noncompliance, oppositional behaviors, emotional dysregulation) place children at high risk of recurring social and emotional problems, underachievement, school dropout, and eventual delinquency. The development of emotional self-regulation and social competence in the early years plays a critical role in shaping the ways in which children think, learn, react to challenges, and develop relationships throughout their lives.

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Perspectives on the Incredible Years Programme: Psychological Management of Conduct Disorder

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Conduct problems are the most common reason for referral for psychological and psychiatric treatment in childhood. The prevalence rate of conduct disorder is 5?10%. It can lead to negative life outcomes including criminal behaviour and psychiatric disorders, with increased costs to the education, health, social and criminal justice services. The study involved an evaluation of an universal school-based approach ? the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management programme ? which was developed in the US and implemented in Jamaica to help reduce conduct problems in young children.

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Pervasive and non-pervasive conduct problems in a clinic sample aged 4-8 years: child, family and day-care/school factors

All children in this sample scored above the 90th percentile on the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI) for home problems, and met the criteria for a possible or a confirmed diagnosis of oppositional defiant behaviours. The proportion of children with pervasive conduct problems was high, 83%. Teachers in day-care and school reported children in the pervasive group to have significantly more attention and internalizing problems as well as lower social competence scores than those in the non-pervasive group. Children in the pervasive group also showed consistently more problems in their relationships both with teachers and peers than those in the non-pervasive group. The implications for assessment and treatment of children with conduct problems in these age-groups are discussed.

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Pilot Trial of The Incredible Years for Parents of Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Abstract Only:

Parents raising young children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) experience disproportionately high levels of stress and burden, which are associated with a plethora of other negative child and family outcomes. Yet, few interventions address parent mental health or related outcomes in this population.

Chapter 1 describes a comprehensive review of randomized controlled trials which included parents of preschool-age children with ASD. Seven interventions met the review criteria. The studies were strengthened by the use of fidelity measures and developmentally-appropriate interventions. However, while all of the studies collected parent measures, none reported significant posttest improvements in parent mental health or other outcomes. Furthermore, numerous issues, such as unclear randomization strategies, small sample sizes, and poor external validity further limited the ability to draw significant conclusions regarding the promise of the interventions. The chapter concludes with a call to develop and rigorously test family-centered interventions aimed at improving both child and parent outcomes.

Chapter 2 highlights the feasibility of implementing an existing evidence-based practice, The Incredible Years, tailored to parents of children with ASD. Two groups of parents raising preschool-age children (ages 3 to 6) with ASD (N =17) participated in a 15-week pilot trial of the intervention. The fidelity of the program was generally maintained, with the exception of program-specific videos. Qualitative data from individual post-intervention interviews reported parents benefited most from child emotion regulation strategies, parent stress management, social support, and visual resources.

Chapter 3 reports on a mixed method test of the acceptability and results from the trial described in Chapter 2. Attendance was high (88% to 100% weekly) and attrition was modest (18%). Participants reported high acceptability of all aspects of the program (mean 3.3 out of 4). Parent stress decreased significantly after program completion, as compared to baseline. Parents highlighted several barriers to their success in the program, including trouble finding time to focus on their own needs and difficulty applying some program content (e.g., time-out for noncompliance) to children with sensory or self-regulation challenges. However, parents reportedly enjoyed the strengths-based, play-based approach of the program, as well as opportunities for social support and peer learning.

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Positive classrooms, Positive Children: A Randomized Controlled trial to investigate the effectiveness of the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management programme in an Irish context (short-term outcomes)


The findings point toward the overall utility and cost-effectiveness of the IY TCM programme in an Irish context. The programme led to improvements in the classroom environment, including a reduction in teacher reported stress and negative classroom management strategies, as well as fewer incidences of disruptive behaviour amongst pupils in the classroom. Some improvements were also seen in teacher reports of social, emotional and behavioural difficulties in the intervention group children when compared to their control group counterparts including, in particular, a significant reduction in emotional symptoms. Teacher reports also underline the acceptability and benefits of the programme to teachers and possibly other staff within the Irish education system.

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Prédicteurs de l’assiduité et de l’engagement à un programme d’entraînement aux habiletés parentales

Year: 2010 Bibliography: Pilette, J., Letarte, M.J., Normandeau, S., Robaey, P. (2010). Prédicteurs de l’assiduité et de l’engagement à un programme d’entraînement aux habiletés parentales.  Revue de Psychoéducation, 39(2), 189-207. [spacer] Abstract Les programmes d’entraînement aux habiletés parentales (PEHP) sont efficaces pour aider les enfants présentant des problèmes de comportement et leur famille. Cependant, les parents.
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Predictor and moderator effects in the treatment of Oppositional Defiant Disorder in pediatric primary care

Methods – Parents of 117 children with ODD, ages 3-6 years, seen in primary care received either a minimal intervention bibliotherapy treatment (MIT), or a 12-session parenting program led by a nurse or psychologist.

Results – More initial total life stress, parenting distress, internalizing problems, functional impairment, and difficult temperament were associated with more improvement, but families scoring lower on those variables had fewer behavior problems at posttreatment and follow-up. Gender was a significant moderator, with more improvement for girls than boys in the nurse-led group but more improvement for boys than girls in the MIT group. Less well-educated mothers treated by psychologists showed the greatest change. Conclusions Predictors and moderators may play a role in deciding, which families receive a particular form of treatment for ODD in primary care.

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Predictors of Treatment Outcome In Parent Training For Families With Conduct Problem Children

There is a need to bolster the impact of parent training programs both by lengthening their treatment programs and by providing ongoing expanded therapy which focuses on families’ specific needs such as life crisis management, depression, problem-solving, budget planning, marital therapy, and so forth. Only by addressing the broader ecological needs of families can we begin to reach those 30-50% of families who fail to benefit from the traditional parent training approaches.

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Preliminary data on the efficacy of the Incredible Years Basic Parent Programme in New Zealand


While there is now compelling evidence for the efficacy of parent management training programmes in reducing rates of childhood conduct problems, installing these programmes into a new social context such as New Zealand raises a number of issues. In particular, before such programmes can be accepted as part of established practice in a new context there is a requirement to show (i) that these programmes can be delivered effectively within that context; (ii) that programme efficacy in the new context is established; and (iii) that the cultural appropriateness of the programme is assessed.

Against this background, the present research note summarizes the findings of a preliminary examination of the effectiveness and cultural acceptability of the Incredible Years Basic Parent Programme delivered in New Zealand.

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Preventing Aggression and Violence

With the occurrence of multiple homicides on school campuses during the 1997-1998 and 1998-1999 academic years-such as in Springfield, Oregon and Littleton, Colorado-there has been a growing public perception that an increasing number of students may “go Off” at any time and cause serious harm to themselves and/or others. In response to this perception, school administrators, lawmakers, and prosecutors have recently “cracked-down” on juvenile violence. Metal detectors, security guards and police, crisis drills, “zero tolerance” discipline policies, and alternative programs for aggressive children are now found in many schools that previously saw little need for such measures. Several stats now require that children who commit violent crimes be tried as adults. Lawmakers have also proposed school prayer, mandatory student uniforms, mandatory use of “ma’am” or “sir” when responding t teachers, and the school-wide posting of the Ten Commandments as partial solutions to the widely perceived rising tide of school violence. Although well intended, too often such “solutions” have been misguided, based on little, if any, empirical research supporting their effectiveness in preventing school violence and promoting children’s mental health.

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Preventing Conduct Problems and Improving School Readiness: Evaluation of The Incredible Years Teacher and Child Training Programs in High-Risk Schools


Emotional self-regulation and social competence play a key role in young children?s future interpersonal adjustment and academic success. Unfortunately, exposure to multiple poverty-related risks increases the odds that children will demonstrate less social and emotional competence and more behavior problems. School curricula designed to promote children?s social competence, emotional regulation, and school readiness that are offered to high-risk, socioeconomically disadvantaged populations in the early years would seem a strategic prevention strategy. This randomized trial evaluated the Incredible Years (IY) social, emotion, and problem-solving curriculum (Dinosaur School) as a selective prevention program for socioeconomically disadvantaged children enrolled in Head Start, kindergarten, or first grade classrooms in schools selected because of high rates of poverty.

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Preventing Conduct Problems, Promoting Social Competence: A Parent and Teacher Training Partnership in Head Start


The authors studied the effectiveness of parent and teacher training as a selective prevention program for 272 Head Start mothers and their 4-year-old children and 61 Head Start teachers. Fourteen Head Start centers (34 classrooms) were randomly assigned to (a) an experimental condition in which parents, teachers, and family service workers participated in the prevention program (Incredible Years) or (b) a control condition consisting of the regular Head Start program. Assessments included teacher and parent reports of child behavior and independent observations at home and at school. Construct scores combining observational and report data were calculated for negative and positive parenting style, parent-teacher bonding, child conduct problems at home and at school, and teacher classroom management style. Following the 12-session weekly program, experimental mothers had significantly lower negative parenting and significantly higher positive parenting scores than control mothers. Parent-teacher bonding was significantly higher for experimental than for control mothers. Experimental children showed significantly fewer conduct problems at school than control children. Children of mothers who attended 6 or more intervention sessions showed significantly fewer conduct problems at home than control children. Children who were the ‘highest risk’ at baseline (high rates of noncompliant and aggressive behavior) showed more clinically significant reductions in these behaviors than high-risk control children. After training, experimental teachers showed significantly better classroom management skills than control teachers. One year later the experimental effects were maintained for parents who attended more than 6 groups. The clinically significant reductions in behavior problems for the highest risk experimental children were also maintained. Implications of this prevention program as a strategy for reducing risk factors leading to delinquency by promoting social competence, school readiness, and reducing conduct problems are discussed.

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Prevention of Behavioral Disorders in Primary Care

Young children with aggressive and oppositional behavior are at risk for serious antisocial behavior that may persist into adolescence and adulthood. Most parents wish to discuss parenting difficulties and their child?s social and emotional development during well-child visits. Parent training programs are an effective option to promote positive parenting and discipline strategies and enhance a child?s social skills, emotional self-regulatory skills, and problem-solving ability. Key parenting principles can be incorporated into developmental surveillance and anticipatory guidance during periodic well-child visits to prevent disruptive behavior problems, address parenting concerns, and nurture the optimal development of children?s social-emotional competency.

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Prevention of Behavioral Problems in Filipino Youth with an Evidence-based Parenting Intervention: A Randomized Pilot Study in Churches

Year: 2016 Bibliography: Javier, J., Prevention of Behavioral Problems in Filipino Youth with an Evidence-based Parenting Intervention: A Randomized Pilot Study in Churches.  Submission to The American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Author: Javier [spacer] Abstract Introduction: Filipino youth have significant behavioral health disparities compared to non-Filipino youth.  Delivering evidence-based parenting interventions in faith-based settings.
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Prevention of Filipino Youth Behavioral Health Disparities: Identifying Barriers and Facilitators to Participating in “Incredible Years,” an Evidence-Based Parenting Intervention, Los Angeles, California, 2012

Year: 2015
Bibliography: Flores, N., Supan, J., Kreutzer, C., Samson, A., Coffey, D., & Javier, J. (2015). Prevention of Filipino Youth Behavioral Health Disparities: Identifying Barriers and Facilitators to Participating in "Incredible Years," an Evidence-Based Parenting Intervention, Los Angeles, California, 2012. Preventing Chronic Disease, 12(178). http://dx.doi.org/10.5888.pcd12.150186
Authors: Flores, Supan, Kreutzer, Samson,.
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Prevention Through Parent Training: Making more of a difference


Responding to serious behaviour problems requires new practice answers and emphases. Best practice principles and a developmental perspective indicate that the family should be the focus of preventative work. The Incredible years parent training series is described as an important example of an empirically-supported programme that is presently being used in Tauranga and elsewhere in New Zealand.

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Preventive Intervention for Early Childhood Behavioral Problems: An Ecological Perspective

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The early childhood period is associated with profound development across cognitive, social, emotional, behavioral, and physical domains. Early childhood mental health is characterized by social-emotional competence and behavior regulation within healthy and supportive relationship contexts. However, children may demonstrate significant disruptions in social, emotional and behavioral functioning from early on, with approximately 12% of preschoolers in the general population and up to 30% in high-risk, low income samples identified as having serious behavioral difficulties. These challenges are associated with an elevated risk of future emotional, academic, and relationship problems. Specifically, children exhibiting early-onset behavioral problems are at especially high risk for life-course delinquency, substance use, violent behavior, academic failure, and depression. Although conduct problems are the most frequent reason children are referred for mental health services, young children’s mental health problems remain underrecognized and undertreated.

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Preventive Intervention for Preschoolers at High Risk for Antisocial Behavior: Long Term Effects on Child Physical Aggression and Parenting Practices.

This article presents long-term effects of a preventive intervention for young children at high risk for antisocial behavior. Ninety-two children (M age ? 4 years) were randomly assigned to an 8-month family intervention or no-intervention control condition and assessed 4 times over a 24-month period. Intent-to-treat analyses revealed significant intervention effects on observed child physical aggression, and significant intervention effects found at the end of the program were maintained at follow-up for responsive parenting, harsh parenting and stimulation for learning. Parent ratings of child aggression did not show significant effects of intervention.

IYS has also been evaluated as a preventive intervention with low-income preschoolers and toddlers (Gross et al., 2003; Webster-Stratton, 1998; Webster-Stratton, Reid, & Hammond, 2001). As a preventive intervention, the program has been found to have short-term benefits on parenting practices, child social competence, and conduct problems in Head Start children (Webster-Stratton, 1998; Webster-Stratton et al., 2001). The program was found to be effective for a higher risk subgroup of the Head Start sample, defined as children of mothers with mental health problems and children with elevated behavior problems (Baydar, Reid, & Webster-Stratton, 2003; Reid, Webster-Stratton, & Baydar, 2004). However, long-term effects on parenting practices and child physical aggression are not known. The study presented here extends this work by testing the long-term effects of an adapted version of the IYS on parenting practices and physical aggression in children at especially high risk for antisocial behavior because of their family history of delinquency. Specifically, our study included children with delinquent siblings, a group that has proven to be at significant risk for antisocial behavior (Bank et al., 2004; Compton, Snyder, Schrepferman, Bank, & Shortt, 2003; Conger & Rueter, 1996; Patterson, 1984; Reid, Patterson, & Snyder, 2002; Reiss, Neiderhiser, Hetherington, & Plomin, 2000; Rodgers et al., 2001; Rowe, Almeida, & Jacobson, 1999; Rowe, Rodgers, & Meseck-Bushey, 1992; Slomkowski et al., 2001; Wasserman, Miller, Pinner, & Jaramillo, 1996).

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Promoting Early Childhood Mental Health through Evidence-based Practice


In 2004, the Amherst H. Wilder Foundation introduced the Incredible Years programs to the community. This set of evidence-based programs is designed to teach positive interaction skills, social problem-solving strategies, anger management, and appropriate school behaviors to young children. The programs also strengthen parent-child relationships and help parents develop positive behavior guidance strategies.


Wilder introduced the Incredible Years programs as part of their 100-year history of combining direct services, research, and community development to address the needs of the most vulnerable people in Ramsey County, Minnesota. At Wilder, three of the Incredible Years programs have been implemented and two additional programs were added in November 2009.

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Promoting Enrollment in Parenting Programs Among a Filipino Population: A Randomized Trial

Javier, J.R., Coffey, D.M., Palinkas, L.A., Kipke, M.D., Miranda, J., & Schrager, S.M. (2019). Promoting Enrollment in Parenting Programs Among a Filipino Population: A Randomized Trial. Pediatrics, 143(2). https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2018-0553 Abstract BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Evidence-based parenting programs prevent the onset and escalation of youth conduct problems. However, participation rates in such programs are.
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Promoting Mental Health Competency in Residency Training


As pediatric mental health problems have become more prevalent, pediatricians face the need to hone their skills in identifying and managing these issues in practice. The American Academy of Pediatrics has advocated for competency in mental health care for all pediatricians. Despite these recommended changes, ongoing deficiencies and barriers to developmental?behavioral pediatrics (DBP) training in residency persist, including inadequate faculty development, gaps in training, and funding. Graduates report feeling inadequately prepared to handle DBP issues.

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Promoting Mental Health in Disadvantaged Preschoolers: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial of Teacher Training Effects

Year: 2018 Bibliography: Sebra-Santos, M.J., Gaspar, M.F., Major, S.O., Patras, J., Azevedo, A.F., Homem, T.C., Pimentel, M., Baptista, E., Klest, S., Vale, V.. (14 August 2018). Promoting Mental Health in Disadvantaged Preschoolers: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial of Teacher Training Effects.  Journal of Child and Family Studies. DOI: 10.1007/s10826-018-1208-z. [spacer] Abstract The literature provides solid.
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Promoting Positive Parenting Practices in Primary Care: Outcomes and Mechanisms of Change in a Randomized Controlled Risk Reduction Trial


The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether a short parent-training program (PT) reduces risk factors related to development of childhood socio-emotional and behavior problems in a non-clinical community sample. Data were obtained from parents in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) on PT for children aged 2 to 8 years (N = 186) at pre-intervention, post-intervention and one-year-follow up. There were significant differences in the changes in the two groups, with reductions in harsh parenting and child behavior problems, an enhancement of positive parenting and of the parents? sense of competence in the intervention group. The effects on parenting and parents? satisfaction all lasted through one-year follow up. Our findings suggests that a shortened version of a well-structured parenting intervention, The Incredible Years program, implemented in primary care at community level, reduces harsh parenting and strengthens positive parenting and parents? sense of competence, as reported by the parents. Issues related to a public health approach to promote positive parenting are discussed.

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Protocol of Measures for the Evaluation of the Webster-Stratton Group Parenting Programme with Parents of ‘at risk’ Pre-school Children in Sure Start Centres Across Wales

The programme is one of Webster-Stratton?s Incredible Years (IY) programmes developed and researched for parents, children and teachers. The programme is being offered to parents of pre-school children at risk of developing conduct disorder and who are living in identified Sure Start areas across North Wales. The programme is being delivered by certified group leaders through seven participating Sure Start centres across North Wales.

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Related articles:

Parenting intervention in Sure Start services for children at risk of developing conduct disorder: pragmatic randomised controlled trial

Early prevention of Conduct Disorder: How and why did the North West Wales Sure Start study work?

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Putting the Prevention of Problems of Living Into Action in New Zealand: The Incredible Years Series of Parent, Teacher, and Child Programmes

Stanley, P. & Stanley, L. (2018). Putting the Prevention of Problems of Living Into Action in New Zealand: The Incredible Years Series of Parent, Teacher, and Child Programmes. Journal of the New Zealand College of Clinical Psychologists 28(2), 9-15. [spacer] Abstract This submission to the New Zealand Government Inquiry into Mental Health and Addiction.
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Quality Training, Supervision, Ongoing Monitoring, and Agency Support: Key Ingredients to Implementing The Incredible Years Programs with Fidelity


Identification and selection of an ‘evidence-based,’ ’empirically validated,’ or ‘best practices’ mental health program is only the first step in service delivery. In order to obtain similar results to those published by the developer of a program, attention must be given to supervising the quality of the implementation of that program. It is important to assure that the program is delivered with the highest degree of fidelity possible. Fidelity means that the program is delivered in its entirety, using all the components and therapeutic processes recommended by the developer. The Incredible Years Parent, Teacher, and Child Training Programs have been proven in numerous randomized control group studies to be effective for promoting positive parent and teacher interactions with children, strengthening children?s emotional, social, and self-regulation competence and reducing behavior problems in both prevention and clinic populations. A number of training processes are recommended to ensure that replication of the Incredible Years programs can be achieved with fidelity: standardized training, detailed treatment manuals, standardized session protocols, peer review, mentoring and supervision, and leader certification. This chapter will provide a description of these training methods and supervision processes to deliver the Incredible Years training programs with a high degree of fidelity.

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Rand Report: Promising Practices Network – Programs that Work: The Incredible Years

The Incredible Years series is a set of comprehensive curricula targeting children age 2 to 10 years old and their parents and teachers. The curricula are designed to work jointly to promote emotional and social competence and to prevent, reduce, and treat children?s behavioral and emotional problems.

Parent-Training Programs

The Incredible Years Parent-Training program includes four separate components targeting parents of high-risk children or children displaying behavior problems. In all four training components, facilitators use videotaped scenes to encourage group discussion, problem-solving, and sharing of ideas. The “BASIC Parent-Training Program?Early Childhood” (BASIC?Early Childhood) is a core component of the Incredible Years series and includes 12 to 14 two-hour weekly sessions targeting children age 2 to 7 years old. The BASIC?Early Childhood curriculum emphasizes parenting skills to promote children?s social competence and to reduce behavior problems, and it teaches parents how to play with children, help children to learn, give effective praise and incentives, use limit-setting, and handle misbehavior.

The four add-on parent-training components, “Advance Parent Training Program?School Age (ADVANCE),” “BASIC Parent Training Program?School-Age (BASIC-School Age),” “Supporting Your Child?s Education?School Age”, and the school readiness supplements “Child-directed Play” and “Interactive Reading” may be offered as supplements to the early childhood BASIC component. ADVANCE targets school-age children 4 to 10 years old and includes eight to ten two-hour sessions that emphasize parents? interpersonal skills, such as effective communication, anger management, problem-solving between adults, and ways to give and receive support. The BASIC?School Age program is similar to the early childhood program but emphasizes strategies for older children, including logical consequences, monitoring, helping children learn to problem solve with children, and family problem-solving. The Supporting Your Child?s Education?School Age component for children age 5 to 10 involves four two-hour sessions and highlights approaches to parenting to promote children?s academic skills, including nurturing reading skills, setting up homework routines, and building collaborative relationships with teachers. The school readiness supplements may be used with parents of 3- to 5-year-olds, and includes an emphasis on building children?s social, emotional and academic skills, as well as fostering pre-reading and reading skills using the interactive reading approach.

Child Training Programs

There are two separate child-training components in the Incredible Years series. The first is the classroom program for children age 4 to 8 years. The Classroom Child-Training program uses the “Dina Dinosaur” curriculum which has more than 60 lesson plans (with preschool, kindergarten and grade one and two curricula), and may be offered over multiple years from preschool to grade two. The program seeks to improve peer relationships and reduce aggression both at home and at school. The curriculum is delivered to the entire classroom by regular teachers, two to three times a week through 20 – 30 minute group discussions followed by small-group practice activities. Home activity manuals encourage parents? involvement in teaching their children school rules, social skills, and problem-solving.

The second child-focused program is the “Dinosaur Child-Training” curriculum, a treatment program for small groups of children age 4 to 8 years who are exhibiting “conduct” problems (defined as high rates of aggression, defiance, and oppositional and impulsive behaviors). The curriculum emphasizes communicating feelings, empathy for others, friendship development, anger management, interpersonal problem-solving, and obeying school rules. The Dinosaur Child-Training program is offered to groups of five to six children in two-hour sessions held weekly for 20 to 22 weeks. The program can be delivered by counselors or therapists to treat conduct-disordered children in small groups, or can be used by schools as a “pullout” program for children with special behavioral and emotional needs.

Teacher Training Program

The training program for teachers emphasizes classroom management skills, such as the effective use of praise and encouragement, proactive teaching strategies, and ways to manage inappropriate classroom behavior and build positive relationships with students. Training can be provided through either four to six full-day workshops or 14 to 20 two-hour sessions.

The BASIC Parent-Training Program?Early Childhood component and the small-group Dinosaur Child-Training program have been rigorously evaluated, and the remainder of this description of the Incredible Years series focuses on these two components. The ADVANCE, BASIC?School Age, Supporting Your Child?s Education, and school readiness parent-training components, the Teacher-Training program, and the Dina Dinosaur classroom curriculum currently do not have sufficiently rigorous research evidence that clearly assesses impacts on child outcomes.

View the report on the Promising Practices Network website

The Promising Practices Network (www.promisingpractices.net) is a Rand Corporation website

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Randomised Controlled Trial of a Parenting Intervention in the Voluntary Sector for Reducing Conduct Problems in Children: Outcomes and Mechanisms of Change


Background: to test effectiveness of a parenting intervention (The Incredible Years), delivered in a community-based voluntary-sector organisation, for reducing conduct problems in clinically-referred children.

Methods: Randomised controlled trial, follow-up at 6, 18 months, assessors blind to treatment status. Participants – 76 children referred for conduct problems, aged 2-9, primarily low-income families, randomised to treatment vs. 6-month wait-list group. Retention was 93% at 6 months, 90% at 18 months. Interventions – Webster-Stratton Incredible Years video-based 14-week group programme. Intervention teaches cognitive-behavioural principles for managing behaviour, using a collaborative, practical, problem-solving approach. Primary outcomes – child problem behaviour by parent-report (Eyberg) and home-based direct observation; Secondary outcomes – observed positive and negative parenting; parent-reported parenting skill, confidence and depression. All measures standardised and well-validated.

Results: Group differences were tested using ANCOVA, controlling for baseline levels. Post-treatment improvements were found in child problem behaviour, by parent-report (effect size (ES) .48, p=.05) and direct observation (ES .78, p=.02); child independent play (ES .77, p=.003); observed negative (ES .74, p=.003) and positive (ES .38, p=.04) parenting; parent-reported confidence (ES .40, p=.03) and skill (ES .65, p=.01). Maternal depression did not change. Consumer satisfaction was high. At 18-month follow-up, no randomised comparison was possible. However, changes appeared to maintain at 18-month follow-up, with no significant change toward baseline level on any measure. Change in observed positive parenting appeared to mediate change in child problem behaviour.

Conclusions: Findings suggest that a group-based cognitive-behavioural parenting programme, delivered by well-trained and supervised staff can be effective in a community voluntary-sector setting, for reducing conduct problems and enhancing parenting skills. Change in parenting skill appears to be a key mechanism for change in child behaviour. Findings have implications for feasibility of translating evidence-based programmes, even for clinically-referred conduct problems, into less specialised community settings, likely to have lower costs and be more accessible for families.

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Randomised Controlled Trial of Parent Groups for Child Antisocial Behaviour Targeting Multiple Risk Factors: The SPOKES Project

There is a pressing need for cost-effective population-based interventions to tackle early-onset antisocial behaviour. As this is determined by many factors, it would seem logical to devise interventions that address several influences while using an efficient means of delivery. The aim of this trial was to change four risk factors that predict poor outcome: ineffective parenting, conduct problems, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, and low reading ability.

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Reducing child conduct disordered behaviour and improving parent mental health in disadvantaged families: A 12-month follow-up and cost analysis of a parenting intervention

Year: 2014
Bibliography: McGilloway, S., NiMhaille, G., Bywater, T., Leckey, Y., Kelly, P., Furlong, M., Comiskey, C., O'Neill, D., & Donnelly, M. (2014). European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. Reducing child conduct disordered behaviour and improving parent mental health in disadvantaged families: A 12-month follow-up and cost analysis of a parenting.
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Reducing Child Conduct Problems and Promoting Social Skills in a Middle-Income Country: Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial

photoThis study is the first in a middle-income country to show that training teachers in classroom behaviour management and social skill promotion can lead to significant and clinically important reductions in child conduct problems and increases in social skills among pre-school children with antisocial behaviour. Benefits were demonstrated by direct observation as well as by teacher and parent report.

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School-based Intervention for K-2nd Graders with Disruptive Behavior Disorders


The benefits of this school-based intervention support its implementation for disruptive behavior in schools. This model of intervention also provides effective ways to meet the needs of an underserved population. Children with significant needs for behavioral and social/emotional intervention can be treated in the same environment where the need is greatest: the community school.

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Self-Administered Videotape Therapy for Families With Conduct- Problem Children: Comparison With Two Cost-Effective Treatments and a Control Group


Parents of 114 conduct-problem children, aged 3-8 years, were randomly assigned to one of our groups: an individually administered videotape modeling treatment (IVM), a group discussion videotape modeling treatment (GDVM), a group discussion treatment (GD), and a waiting-list control group. Compared with the control group, all three treatment groups of mothers reported significantly fewer child behavior problems, more prosocial behaviors, and less spanking. Fathers in the GDVM and IVM conditions and teachers of children whose parents were in the GDVM and GD conditions also reported significant reductions in behavior problems compared with control subjects. Home visit data indicated that all treatment groups of mothers, fathers, and children exhibited significant behavioral changes. There were relatively few differences between treatment groups on most outcome measures, although the differences found consistently favored the GDVM treatment. However, cost effectiveness was the major advantage of the IVM treatment.

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She understands the kids who bring their parents to their knees – Early intervention is key in stopping aggressive behavior

Carolyn Webster-Stratton adores and understands kids who throw things, bite, kick, refuse to obey every request or command and who rarely get invited to birthday parties. Kids who are asked to leave preschools and, if they are invited to a play date, are never asked again.

And through every encounter Webster-Stratton appears as a woman wrapped in calm, a calm that puts visitors at ease the minute she enters a room.

Carolyn Webster-Stratton, whose work focuses on helping children ages 3 to 8, uses the puppets shown in her University District office to interact during therapy sessions. Her office is a dinosaur haven and her windowsills overflow with stuffed animals and a multiracial classroom of puppets, some of them in sizes and shapes similar to her clients. Children talk to the puppets, and this clinical psychologist listens.

Webster-Stratton is an ally of children who bring parents to their knees — children with conduct problems, a generic term for children who are highly oppositional, defiant, aggressive. These disruptive disorders affect about 8 percent of the population.

“That’s a lot of kids, and services for these children are few and far between,” she said. “Aggressive behavior is an important risk factor related to later violence.”

That’s why she’s focused on children ages 3 to 8, a key time to break the trajectory. Without early intervention, these children are at risk of getting kicked out of schools, living with anti-social behaviors, abusing drugs and alcohol and eventually facing criminal charges as they age.

She’s shown that these children can be helped, and dreams of the day when parents and educators are as attuned to developing emotional skills as academic skills.

“All kids yell, hit, bite, scream,” Webster-Stratton said of her subjects. “These kids do it at a greater frequency and intensity.” Most children are aggressive at 2 and 3, but that aggression decelerates at 4 or 5.

“A typical 5-year-old will disobey about one-third of the time, but do what is asked two-thirds of the time,” she said. “Children with defiance or conduct disorders refuse most of the time. Unless they obey, they can’t be socialized or taught.

“Highly aggressive children tend to stay that way throughout life unless they are helped. Both parents and teachers need to be involved in promoting social skills and replacing aggressive behavior.”

That means learning how to share, follow directions and use words to ask for what they want, for example.

Webster-Stratton said society, unfairly, tends to blame parents for kids with misbehavior issues: “The biology a child gets isn’t something they can do anything about.”

She cites three factors affecting a child with conduct problems: biology, family and school.

Biologically, a child’s “wiring” could be off, making him difficult to deal with. He might have additional issues such as an attention deficit disorder.

Family factors include neglect, high stress, poverty, harsh punishments and abuse.

Schools can add a high student-to-teacher ratio, not enough help, a teacher who isn’t tuned in to these disorders.

A combination of these risk factors can be overwhelming for an affected child.

Webster-Stratton has spent more than 30 years working to break that cycle. She’s worked with children, their families and teachers. She’s researched, developed and published curricula, books and videotapes — programs that are now used in countries throughout the world.

And she’s been at it long enough to track the results, which are impressive. On a three-year follow-up, more than two-thirds of the children were in the normal range on standardized measures completed by teachers and parents.

In the late 1970s this UW psychologist and professor began a parenting program with middle-class families, teaching them how to bring out the best in their kids and to deal with common behavior problems. But when she tried to publish it, editors said, “Who cares about the middle class?”

“It led me to take the program to lower-income families, often single-parent families with a child,” Webster-Stratton said. “That’s what hooked me on this population.”

She taught classes at Children’s Hospital and Regional Medical Center to highly motivated parents who made huge efforts (as in several bus transfers) to learn ways to deal with their children.

Those classes led to programs for children, parents and teachers — prevention programs usually focused on schools with high rates of children in free-lunch programs. Teachers have been trained to deal with behavior and to offer a social and emotional curriculum. Parents are often offered classes in the schools their children attend, parenting classes open to all.

Webster-Stratton’s years in the field and follow-up studies have proved that an increase in social competence decreases aggressive behavior.

John Bancroft, director of Head Start for Puget Sound, has known Webster-Stratton and her work for a long time. She worked with him in a Head Start program for three years in the early 1990s.

“I liked her involvement of parents,” Bancroft said. “She was willing and eager to train parents to train other parents. There’s no professional aloofness. I would say it was one of the most successful parent education programs we’ve done in Head Start.”

Another mark of her success was having 70 percent to 80 percent of parents participate. “That was unheard of,” Bancroft said.

It was information to help all parents, not just parents of challenging children.

Webster-Stratton’s dream is for social and emotional curriculums to be regarded as being as important as reading or math. “You can’t separate them,” she said. “Better social/emotional skills (lead to) better academic outcomes.”

She also noted that we can take courses in almost any subject, but courses in parenting are rare. “We should ‘immunize’ parents to be the best parents they can be,” Webster-Stratton said.

She speaks from professional and personal experiences. A native of Canada, she has a nursing degree from University of Toronto, two master’s degrees from Yale — one in public health and another as pediatric nurse practitioner, and a doctorate in educational psychology from the UW.

After working with children for years, she had two sons, now 20 and 22. Did motherhood cause her to rethink any of her programs?

The question made her laugh. She said that’s when she developed her Advanced Parenting Program focusing on anger and depression management, problem solving, communication skills and giving and getting support.

PARENTING TIPS

Social skills are as important as numbers and the alphabet for preschoolers.

If parents feel they’ve lost control with their child, they should seek help.

Teachers are good at spotting problems because they have more perspective.

Parents can get away with some “slop” in their parenting skills with typical kids, but not with those with conduct problems.

Children with conduct disorders can be so inattentive they miss both praise and commands.

Attention is a powerful reward. It works when teachers ignore kids who are out of their seats and praise those who stay seated, for example.

Don’t reinforce misbehavior.

Develop a meaningful relationship with your child and partner with your child’s teacher.
— Source: Carolyn Webster-Stratton

TO LEARN MORE

To learn more about Webster-Stratton, her programs and books, go to incredibleyears.com

Children’s Hospital and Regional Medical Center in Seattle offers parenting classes and other programs. Call the hot line: 206-987-2500.

The University of Washington Parenting Clinic is accepting families of children 4 to 6 years of age with attention deficit hyperactivity disorders. For information, call 206-543-6010

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Show, Not Tell

A decade ago parenting programs were not in fashion. It was commonplace to talk about the effects of family breakdown or the problems of single mothers, but relatively few people were paying much serious attention to what parents did or to how parenting behaviors could be changed with children’s health and development in mind. Not so today: many jurisdictions are awash with programs, most of them of doubtful value.

After spending two years practicing among the Haida and Tlingit Indians of Alaska, Carolyn Webster-Stratton came to the conclusion that showing parents how to play with their children was more effective than telling them how to do it. When sl1e arrived at the University of Washington in 1976 to teach in the nurse practitioner program, she began the process of videotaping families to show them what worked with their children and what didn’t. Today, Webster-Stratton is a professor of nursing at the University of Washington where, in 1980, she con1pleted her doctoral dissertation in educational psychology on the effectiveness of videotape modeling parental education as a therapeutic tool.

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Social Competence and Conduct Problems in Young Children: Issues in Assessment

Results suggest that young children with conduct problems have deficits in their social information processing awareness or interpretation of social cues – they overestimate their own social competence and misattribute hostile intent to others. Tests of cognitive prolem solving and observations of peer play interactions indicated that the children with conduct problems and significantly fewer postitive problem-solving strategies and positive social skills, more negative conflict management strategies and delayed play skills with peers.

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Social Learning Theory Parenting Intervention Promotes Attachment-Based Caregiving in Young Children: Randomized Clinical Trial

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Parenting programs for school-aged children are typically based on behavioral principles as applied in social learning theory. It is not yet clear if the benefits of these interventions extend beyond aspects of the parent-child relationship quality conceptualized by social learning theory. The current study examined the extent to which a social learning theory-based treatment promoted change in qualities of parent-child relationship derived from attachment theory.

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Social Skills and Problem-solving Training for Children with Early-onset Conduct Problems: Who Benefits?


Families of 99 children with early-onset conduct problems, aged 4-8 years, were randomly assigned to a child training treatment group (CT) utilizing the Incredible Years Dinosaur Social Skills and Problem Solving Curriculum or a waiting-list control group (CON). Post-treatment CT children had significantly fewer externalizing problems at home, less aggression at school, more prosocial behavior with peers, and more positive conflict management strategies than CON children. Significantly more CT than CON children showed clinically significantly improvements on reports and independent observations of aggressive and noncompliant behavior. The differential treatment response was evaluated according to child comorbidity with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), parenting discipline practices, and family risk factors. The only risk factor related to failure to make improvements in child conduct problems after treatment was negative parenting (i.e., maternal critical statements and physical force). The long-term follow-up 1 year later indicated that most of the significant post-treatment changes were maintained.?

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Strategies for Helping Early School-Aged Children with Oppositional Defiant and Conduct Disorders: The Importance of Home-School Partnerships

Year: 1993 Bibliography: Webster-Stratton, C. (1993). Strategies for helping early school-aged children with oppositional defiant and conduct disorders: The importance of home-school partnerships. School Psychology Review, 22(3), 437-457. [spacer] Abstract This article provides a brief review of the diagnosis, developmental progression, and etiology of oppositional defiant and early-onset conduct disorders (ODD/CD) in children..
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Strengthening Social and Emotional competence in Young Children Who Are Socioeconomically Disadvantaged – Preschool and Kindergarten School-Based Curricula (Chapter 9)

The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS), a nationally representative sample of more than 22,000 kindergarten children, suggests that exposure to multiple poverty-related risks increases the odds that children who are socioeconomically disadvantages will demonstrate less social and emotional competence and more behavior problems than more economically advantaged children.

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Study of generalisation effects from home to day-care/school settings were examined in a clinic sample of children aged 4-8 years

In the present study, generalisation effects from home to day-care/school settings were examined in a clinic sample of children aged 4-8 years treated because of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) or Conduct Disorder (CD) with The Incredible Years Parent Training programme or Parent Training combined with Classroom Training.

A striking characteristic of the sample was that 83% of the children exhibited clinical levels of conduct problems both at home and in day-care or school settings before treatment. Overall, the combined Parent Training + Classroom Training treatment produced more positive generalisation effects than the Parent Training only group, in particular after treatment. Analyses of differences between group means between pre- and posttreatment were conducted by means of ANCOVAs using pretreatment scores as covariate and treatment condition.

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Supporting Portuguese residential child care staff: An exploratory study with the Incredible Years Basic Parent Programme

Year: 2014 Bibliography: Silva, I., & Gaspar, M. Supporting Portuguese residential child care staff: An exploratory study with the Incredible Years Basic Parent Programme. Psychosocial Intervention, 2014. 23, 33-41. Authors: Silva, Gaspar DOI:10.5093/in2014a4 [spacer]

Abstract

Children in residential care have experienced high levels of social, emotional and behavioral difficulties and behaviour control by staff is an issue.
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Supporting Teachers and Children in Schools: The Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness of the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management Programme in Primary School Children


Childhood antisocial behaviour has high immediate and long-term costs for society and the individual, particularly in relation to mental health and behaviours that jeopardise health. Managing challenging behaviour is a commonly reported source of stress and burn out among teachers, ultimately resulting in a substantial number leaving the profession. Interventions to improve parenting do not transfer easily to classroombased problems and the most vulnerable parents may not be easily able to access them. Honing teachers’ skills in proactive behaviour management and the promotion of socio-emotional regulation, therefore, has the potential to improve both child and teacher mental health and well-being and the advantage that it might potentially benefit all the children subsequently taught by any teacher that accesses the training.

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Sustained Effects of Incredible Years as a Preventive Intervention in Preschool Children with Conduct Problems

photoThe present study evaluated preventive effects of the Incredible Years program for parents of preschool children who were at risk for a chronic pattern of conduct problems, in the Netherlands. In a matched control design, 72 parents of children with conduct problems received the Incredible Years program. These families (intervention group) were compared with 72 families who received care as usual (control group). Two years after termination of the intervention, it appeared that observed and selfrated parenting skills were significantly improved in the intervention group. Likewise, in this group, observed child conduct problems showed sustained intervention effects. The decrease in observed critical parenting mediated the decrease in observed child conduct problems over time. In addition, it appeared that parental influence increased over time.

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Sympathetic- and Parasympathetic-linked Cardiac Function and Prediction of Externalizing Behavior, Emotion Regulation, and Prosocial Behavior among Preschoolers Treated for ADHD

Objective: To evaluate measures of cardiac activity and reactivity as prospective biomarkers of treatment response to an empirically supported behavioral intervention for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: Cardiac preejection period (PEP), an index of sympathetic-linked cardiac activity, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), an index of parasympathetic-linked cardiac activity, were assessed among 99 preschool children (ages 4?6 years) with ADHD both at rest and in response to behavioral challenge, before participants and their parents completed 1 of 2 versions of the Incredible Years parent and child interventions. Results: Main effects of PEP activity and reactivity and of RSA activity and reactivity were found. Although samplewide improvements in behavior were observed at posttreatment, those who exhibited lengthened cardiac PEP at rest and reduced PEP reactivity to incentives scored higher on measures of conduct problems and aggression both before and after treatment. In contrast, children who exhibited lower baseline RSA and greater RSA withdrawal scored lower on prosocial behavior before and after treatment. Finally, children who exhibited greater RSA withdrawal scored lower on emotion regulation before and after treatment. Conclusions: We discuss these findings in terms of (a) individual differences in underlying neurobiological systems subserving appetitive (i.e., approach) motivation, emotion regulation, and social affiliation and (b) the need to develop more intensive interventions targeting neurobiologically vulnerable children.

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Systematic Comparison of Consumer Satisfaction of Three Cost-Effective Parent Training Programs for Conduct Problem Children

This study compares consumer satisfaction of three cost-effective methods for training parents of conduct problem children. Seventy-nine mothers and 52 fathers completed weekly evaluations and extensive one-month post treatment evaluations. One year later 84 percent of the mothers and 75 percent of the father completed the consumer follow-up evaluation.

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Tailoring the Incredible Years Parent, Teacher, and Child Interventions for Young Children with ADHD

Behavioral treatment research for preschoolers (ages 4 to 6 years) with ADHD is not extensive; however, parent training for young children diagnosed with ADHD has shown some preliminary promising outcomes. One of the core methods for the IY parent program is that therapists work collaboratively with parents to develop individual goals for each parent and child. IY therapists collaborate with parents to tailor the program content to each parent and child?s particular situation. For parents of children with ADHD, this tailoring process often involves helping parents understand ADHD and how it aff ects children?s social, emotional, and academic development, setting developmentally appropriate goals around increasing children?s att ention and focus and reducing misbehavior, strengthening children?s emotion regulation skills, and also changing the environment to support children?s need for movement, structure, predictable routines, scaffolding, and immediate feedback.

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Tailoring the Incredible Years Parenting Program According to Children’s Developmental Needs and Family Risk Factors (Book Chapter 10)

For example, parents of children who are impulsive, hyperactive, and inattentive learn about temperament and how their children?s biological make-up makes it more difficult for their children to listen, follow directions, and play appropriately with other children. They learn the importance of clear limit setting and consistent follow through and ways to help coach their children?s academic and social skills during play with other children. On the other hand, adoptive or foster parents are more likely to be focused on helping their children develop trusting relationships with them. This means they will spend more time on child-directed play, emotional coaching and building the relationship or attachment building components of the curriculum.

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Taking the Incredible Years Child and Teacher Programmes to scale in Wales

Year: 2017 (in press)
Bibliography: Hutchings, J. & Williams, M.E. (2017 in press). Taking the Incredible Years Child and Teacher Programmes to scale in Wales. Childhood Education, in press.

The content and international evidence for the Incredible Years programmes for children and teachers are described. This is followed by a description.

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Targeted vs Universal Provision of Support in High-Risk Communities: Comparison of Characteristics in Two Populations Recruited to Parenting Interventions

Abstract Purpose: To compare the characteristics of parents and children recruited for two randomised-controlled trials (RCTs) of parenting support in disadvantaged communities in Wales in order to explore the effects of community-based vs individual-based targeting in early prevention. Design/methodology/approach: Parents from high-risk disadvantaged communities in Wales, where additional early intervention.
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Teacher perceptions of change through participation int he Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management Programme

Kennedy, Y., (2016). Teacher perceptions of change through participation int he Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management Programme (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University College London.   An understanding of the process of teacher change is necessary to explain the outcomes of professional development and to identify under what conditions, how and why change may or.
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Teachers’ perceptions of the impact of the Incredible Years® Teacher Classroom Management programme on their practice and on the social and emotional development of their pupils

Allen, K., Hansford, L., Hayes, R., Allwood, M., Byford, S., Longdon, B., Price, A., & Ford, T. (2019).  Teachers’ perceptions of the impact of the Incredible Years® Teacher Classroom Management programme on their practice and on the social and emotional development of their pupils. British Journal of Educational.
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Teaching Children to Problem-Solve through Puppet Play Interactions

Webster-Stratton, C., Reid, J.M. (2018). Teaching Children to Problem-Solve through Puppet Play Interactions. In A.A. Drewes and C.E. Schaefer (Eds.), Puppets in Play Therapy: A Practical Guidebook (pp. 130-142). New York: Routledge.   Abstract In this chapter, we will focus on how we use puppets in the Incredible Years Dinosaur Program to teach.
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Teaching classroom management – a potential public health intervention?

Year: 2015
Bibliography: Marlow, R., Hansford, L., Edwards, V., Ukoumunne, O., Norman, S., & Ingarfield, S. (2015). Teaching classroom management – a potential public health intervention? Health Education 115(3/4). 230-248. DOI 10.1108/HE-03-2014-0030
Authors: Marlow, Hansford, Edwards, Ukoumunne, Norman, & Ingarfield
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Abstract Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the.
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Teaching Mothers Through Videotape Modeling to Change Their Children’s Behavior


There has been recent increased emphasis in the use of performance-training methods to increase the effectiveness of parent-training programs. Once such method has been the use of live modeling, a technique whereby the experimenter or another parent demonstrates the behaviors the parents are to acquire. This method has been shown to be a powerful agent to enhance the effectiveness of parent-training programs.

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The Applicability of Webster-Stratton Parenting Programmes to Deaf Children with Emotional and Behavioural Problems, and Autism, and Their Families: Annotation and Case Report of a Child with Autistic Spectrum Disorder


This article describes a pilot project whose objective was to explore whether the Webster-Stratton Parenting Programme may be effective for hearing parents and their deaf children who present with conduct disorders and other emotional, behavioural and developmental problems. Outcome measures aimed at overall impact in decreasing behavioural problems and improving overall family function were used. Participants were hearing parents of deaf children referred to our specialist service whose assessment had recommended a parenting skills group as treatment of choice. The children had been diagnosed with behavioural problems with or without additional comorbidity. This pilot phase focused deliberately on one participant, in order to explore whether the approach justified further, more comprehensive evaluative research. Outcome was positive, suggesting that modified Webster-Stratton approaches may well be of use in deaf children of hearing parents.

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The Earlier the Better? Individual Participant Data and Traditional Meta-Analysis of Age Effects of Parenting Interventions for Pre-Adolescent Children

Year: 2018 Bibliography: Gardner, F., Leijten, P., Melendez-Torres, G.J., Landau, S., Mann, J., Beecham, J., Hutchings, J., & Scott, S. (2018). The Earlier the Better? Individual Participant Data and Traditional Meta-Analysis of Age Effects of Parenting Interventions for Pre-Adolescent Children. Child Development (in press). [spacer] Abstract Strong arguments have been made for early.
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The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the Incredible Years® Teacher Classroom Management programme in primary school children: results of the STARS cluster randomised controlled trial

Ford, T., Hayes, R., Byford, S., Edwards, V., Fletcher, M., Logan, S., Norwich, B., Pritchard, W., Allen, K., Allwood, M., Ganguli, P., Grimes, K., Hansford, L., Longdon, B., Norman, S., Price, A., & Ukoumunne, O. (2018).  The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the Incredible Years® Teacher Classroom Management programme in.
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The effectiveness of the Incredible Years Parents and Babies Program as a universal prevention intervention for parents of infants in Denmark: study protocol for a pilot randomized controlled trial

Year: 2015 Bibliography: Pontoppidan, M., The effectiveness of the Incredible Years Parents and Babies Program as a universal prevention intervention for parents of infants in Denmark: study protocol for a pilot randomized controlled trial. Trials, 2015. 16(386). DOI: 10.1186/s13063-015-0859-y Authors: Pontoppidan [spacer] Abstract Background: Infancy is an important period in a child’s life, with rapid growth and.
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The effectiveness of the Incredible Years pre-school parenting programme in the United Kingdom: a pragmatic randomised controlled trial

Morpeth, L., Blower, S., Tobin, K., Taylor, R.S., Bywater, T., Edwards, R.T., Axford, N., Lehtonen, M., Jones, C., & Berry, V. (2017). The effectiveness of the Incredible Years pre-school parenting programme in the United Kingdom: a pragmatic randomised controlled trial. Child Care in Practice, 23(2), 141-161. https://doi.org/10.1080/13575279.2016.1264366 [clear] The prognosis for.
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The Effects of Father Involvement in parent Training for Conduct Problem Children

Thirty families who received parent training for conduct-disorder children were divided into two groups, father-involved families and father-absent families. Immediately post-treatment both groups reported significant improvements in their children’s behaviors. Behavioral data showed significant increases in mother praises and reductions in mother negative behaviors, child non-compliance and deviancy.

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The extended school aged Incredible Years parent programme

Year: 2011 Bibliography: Hutchings, J., Bywater, T., Williams, M.E., Whitaker, C., Lane, E., & Shakespeare, K. (2011). The extended school aged Incredible Years parent programme. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 16(3), 136-143. DOI: 10.1111/j.1475-3588.2010.00590.x. [spacer] Abstract Developed to improve parenting skills, parenting programmes have been shown to be effective and cost-effective interventions for.
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The Impact of Parent Behavior-Management Training on Child Depressive Symptoms

Child depression is a serious public health burden without any currently accepted empirically supported treatments. Given the dire consequences of life-course persistent depression and the developmental roots of depression in childhood, effective treatments and prevention strategies are urgently needed. The parent behavior-management intervention used in the present study is a widely used and accepted treatment. Given mounting pressures toward time-limited therapy and the widely accepted high rates of co-occurring behavior problems in children, clinicians and researchers welcome any evidence that single interventions can promote change in multiple problem areas. Current evidence suggests that the parent behavior-management program tested in this study offers a viable treatment for reducing depressive symptoms in young children.

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The Impact of the Incredible Years Parent, Child, and Teacher Training Programs on Children’s Co-Occurring Internalizing Symptoms

Theoretical and empirical evidence suggests that two of the most common childhood syndromes, disruptive behaviors and depression, have similar developmental antecedents and may respond to similar interventions. Recent evidence suggests that parenting interventions that target more nurturing and less harsh parenting risk factors lead to reduced internalizing symptoms in children (Webster-Stratton & Herman, 2008) in addition to the well-established effects on child conduct problems. For instance, Webster-Stratton and Herman (2008) found that children whose parents participated in the IY Parent Training (PT) program had reduced depressive symptoms at post-treatment compared to children in a wait-list control condition. Effects were mediated by changes in parenting effectiveness.

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The Impact of Three Evidence-Based Programmes Delivered in Public Systems in Birmingham, UK

photoThe Birmingham Brighter Futures strategy was informed by epidemiological data on child well-being and evidence on “what works,” and included the implementation and evaluation of three evidence-based programmes in regular children’s services systems, as well as an integrated prospective cost-effectiveness analysis (reported elsewhere). A randomised controlled trial (RCT) of the Incredible Years BASIC parenting programme involved 161 children aged three and four at risk of a social-emotional or behavioural disorder. An RCT of the universal PATHS social-emotional learning curriculum involved children aged four?six years in 56 primary schools. An RCT of the Level 4 Group Triple-P parenting programme involved parents of 146 children aged four?nine years with potential social-emotional or behavioural disorders. All three studies used validated standardised measures. Both parenting programme trials used parentcompleted measures of child and parenting behaviour. The school-based trial used teacher reports of children’s behaviour, emotions, and social competence. Incredible Years yielded reductions in negative parenting behaviours among parents, reductions in child behaviour problems, and improvements in children?s relationships. In the PATHS trial, modest improvements in emotional health and behavioural development after one year disappeared by the end of year two. There were no effects for Triple-P. Much can be learned from the strengths and limitations of the Birmingham experience

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The Importance Of Implementation Fidelity


Over the past several years, a large amount of information has been collected on the risk and protective factors for violence. Research has also identified prevention programs that can modify these risk and protective factors. The Blueprints initiative has been in the forefront in identifying exemplary programs that have been evaluated in rigorous, controlled trials, and much attention has been focused nationally on selecting and implementing quality programs. However, identification of effective programs is only the first step in the efforts to prevent and control violence. Widespread implementation of effective programs is unlikely to affect the incidence of violent crime unless there is careful attention given to the quality of implementation, the degree to which a program is delivered as intended (American Youth Policy Forum, 1999; Biglan & Taylor, 2000; Lipsey, 1999). Research demonstrates that successful implementation is not guaranteed by a site?s decision to adopt a best practices program. Many science-based programs have been adopted in different settings with widely varying outcomes. In fact, a high quality implementation of a poor program may be more effective than a low quality implementation of a best practice program (Gottfredson, Gottfredson, & Czeh, 2000). Until recently, little emphasis has been given to implementing programs with fidelity in both the science and practice of prevention. As a result, most people do not recognize the importance of implementation fidelity and feel that implementation of at least some program components will be better than doing nothing. However, this may be an erroneous belief, since we typically do not know which components of a program may be responsible for the reductions in violence. Programs must be implemented with fidelity to the original model to preserve the behavior change mechanisms that made the original model effective (Arthur & Blitz, 2000).

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The Incredible Years – The Norwegian Webster-Stratton Programme 1998-2004 (In Norwegian)

This report has been prepared to provide an account of the Norwegian The Incredible Years programme, in accessible form. Beside a description of the programme, it concentrates on the results of clinical trials carried out in Trondheim and Troms? in 2001-2003, and presents material from a user evaluation carried out in 2003-2004. A brief examination of implementation issues is also included. Important project components in the programme seen as a whole have had to be omitted here, either because they are not yet complete or because space did not allow their inclusion. The treatment trial material presented here is based on work carried out by Bo Larsson, Willy-Tore M?rch, May Britt Drugli and Sturla Fossum. The user evaluation material is based on work carried out by Jim Lurie and the undersigned. Charlotte Reedtz, Jim Lurie and the undersigned have worked on collection of material to standardise instruments used in the research.

Background: Controlled evaluations of psychosocial interventions for young children with behavioural problems are sparse. However, in a series of experimental studies, professor Webster- Stratton and her collaborators in Seattle have examined the effects of various forms of parent and child therapy for 4-8 year-old children with aggressive and noncompliant behaviours. In the studies various forms of basic parent and child training have been compared to waiting-list controls, a more comprehensive parent training program, and in addition to a school-based (teacher) intervention. No previous replications have been made in Scandinavia, but two such studies have been conducted in Canada and one recently in England, both with positive outcomes.?

Aims and study design: To replicate one of Webster-Stratton’s studies comparing the basic training program for parents (12 sessions) with parent training and child therapy (“The Dinosaur School”)(18 sessions) and waiting-list controls in an experimental study including a total of 150 Norwegian children aged 4-8 years; 60 families will be randomized into each of the active treatment groups and 30 families to the waiting-list. To examine the maintenance of treatment effects one year after treatment, in addition to generalisation of treatment effects from home to school settings.?

Measures: After screening for children’ s noncompliant and aggressive behaviours as rated by parents and teachers (Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory-EBCI), parents of children with high scores are interviewed to obtain psychiatric diagnoses of either oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD). Parents rate their practices, involvement in child care and rearing disagreement, in addition to their own anger, depression and stress. Observations of child and parent interaction are made at home and in the clinic. In the school and preschool the children’s behavioural problems are observed and compared with children with no such problems. The child reports on its feelings of loneliness and takes a problem-solving test. School and day care teachers assess the children’ s behaviour and social competence, in addition to their own home involvement.?

Implementation and intervention: The planning of the project started 1998 and has been subjected to an evaluation by the Norwegian Research Council before implementation. Extensive contacts were established with professor Carolyn Webster-Stratton, who helped training of therapists and the mentor. Because no normative data existed for the screening measure (EBCI), it was first standardised in a survey including about 640 children aged 4-8 years from Trondheim and Troms?. Many of the assessment instruments and the video vignettes were translated into Norwegian.?

Since the fall of 200l recruitment of children and families has taken place. Today, about half of the final sample (N=78) has been recruited in the project, which will continue unti1 summer 2003. Treatment is administered to parents and children in groups over a 3-4 month period. Two therapists conduct the group treatment, which is highly structured and manual.?

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The Incredible Years ‘Dinosaur school’ programme: An interpretative phenomenological analysis of children’s experiences

Houlihan, T.M. (2013). The Incredible Years 'Dinosaur school' programme: An interpretative phenomenological analysis of children's experiences (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Limerick, Ireland. Abstract The Incredible Years (IY) programme is an evidence-based preventative and early intervention programme designed to reduce behavioural problems and promote social and emotional competencies in children. There.
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The Incredible Years Basic Parent Program for Preschoolers at Risk for Developmental Disabilities in the Hong Kong Community Setting

Year: 2015
Bibliography: Kong Mo Yee, M. (2015). The Incredible Years Basic Parent Program for Preschoolers at risk for Developmental Disabilities in the Hong Kong Community Setting (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
Authors: Kong Mo Yee Maureen
  Parents of children with developmental disabilities experience a greater level of.
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The Incredible Years Basic Parent Training for Portuguese Preschoolers with AD/HD Behaviors: Does it Make a Difference?

Abstract

Background

Evidence-based psychosocial interventions such as parent training programs are strongly recommended as first-line treatment for preschool-age children with or at-risk of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD).

Objective

Evaluate the effectiveness of the Incredible Years Basic Parent Training (IY) in hyperactive and inattentive behaviors of Portuguese preschoolers.

Methods

One hundred children, between three and six years-old, with AD/HD behaviors, who were part of a larger randomized controlled trial in which participants were allocated to either an intervention or control group. In this subsample analysis, there were 52 participants in the intervention condition (IYC) and 48 in the waiting-list control condition (WLC). Multi-informants and multi-measures of child and parenting behaviors were taken before and after the 14-week intervention.

Results

Medium-to-large intervention effects were found in primary caregivers? reported measures of children?s AD/HD behaviors and on self-reported parenting practices. Independent observations indicated significant short-term effects on positive parenting and coaching. Primary caregivers had a high attendance rate and reported high satisfaction with the program. Additionally, 43 % of children in the IYC clinically improved in the primary AD/HD outcome measure, compared with 11 % in the WLC.

Conclusions

Preliminary results suggest that IY parent training seems to be an effective tool, making the difference in the behavior of Portuguese preschoolers with early signs of AD/HD and their mothers.

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The Incredible Years Ireland Study, Parents, Teachers and Early Childhood Intervention: Long-term outcomes of the Incredible Years Parent and Teacher Classroom Management training programs (Combined 12-month Report)


Background: Early childhood behavioural difficulties are becoming more prevalent (Collishaw et al., 2004) and increase the risk of poorer outcomes later in life, including academic difficulties, antisocial behaviour, criminality, and poor social adjustment. A growing body of literature highlights the importance of early intervention and prevention programmes, such as parent-training or school-based programmes, for the prevention and treatment of early childhood behavioural problems and promotion of child well-being. The Webster-Stratton Incredible Years (IY) Parent, Teacher and Child Training Series was designed for the early treatment and prevention of conduct disorders in childhood (Webster-Stratton & Hancock, 1998). The IY series comprises a suite of comprehensive, specially designed programmes, which target children aged 0-12 yrs, and their parents and teachers, with a view to improving social and emotional functioning and reducing or preventing emotional and behavioural problems. The implementation of the IY programme in several community-based agencies and schools in Ireland began in 2004 – spearheaded by Archways, the national co-ordinator of the IY programme in Ireland – as a means of preventing and treating emotional and behavioural difficulties in children.

Study 1 (Section 1): Examining the longer-term benefits of the Incredible Years BASIC parent training programme in Ireland
Study 2 (Section 2): Examining the longer-term utility and implementation of the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management Programme in Ireland

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The Incredible Years Parent Program for Chinese Preschoolers With Developmental Disabilities

Mo-yee Kong, M., & Kit-fong Au, T. (2018) The Incredible Years Parent Program for Chinese Preschoolers With Developmental Disabilities. Early Education and Development, 29(4), 494-514. https://doi.org/10.1080/10409289.2018.1461987 Abstract The objective of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of Incredible Years Basic Parent Training (IYPT Basic) in a community clinic setting in Hong.
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The Incredible Years Parent Programs: Methods and Principles that Support Fidelity of Program Delivery

Year: 2015 Bibliography: Webster-Stratton, C., The Incredible Years Parent Programs: Methods and Principles that Support Fidelity of Program Delivery. in Evidence-Based Parenting Education: A Global Perspective. J. Ponzetti, Editor, 2015. Routledge. Author: Webster-Stratton [spacer] Abstract Social, emotional, and behavioral problems in young children are the most com­mon reason parents seek help from mental health professionals..
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The Incredible Years Parent Training Program: Promoting Resilience Through Evidence-Based Prevention Groups


This article describes an evidence-based preventive group intervention, Incredible Years Parent Training Program (IY). Decades of research have shown that IY strengthens parent and child competencies and in turn reduces child risks for developing conduct problems and other negative life outcomes. The purpose of this article is to examine IY through a resilience lens and highlight how it capitalizes on group process mechanisms to serve as a model preventive group intervention. Future directions and implications for research, practice, and training are discussed.

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The Incredible Years Parent Training Programme in Tauranga, New Zealand: A research summary

For this paper the researcher took the unusual approach of interviewing the deliverers of the parent training programme in Tauranga, rather than the recipients. The perspective taken was that the programme facilitators are usually highly qualified psychologists and social workers who collectively have an enormous amount of knowledge, experience and insights. The Incredible Years parent training programme has been found to be highly successful in Tauranga as it provides a supportive group environment in which parents can share concerns and ideas, and it is adaptable to different cultural and individual needs.

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The Incredible Years Parent, Teacher, and Child Intervention: Targeting Multiple Areas of Risk for a Young Child With Pervasive Conduct Problems Using a Flexible, Manualized Treatment Program


Young children who present for treatment with oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) frequently exhibit these symptoms across settings and often show comorbid symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and/or internalizing symptoms such as anxiety or depression. Parent training programs to treat these children must be flexible and comprehensive enough to address these issues. This article outlines a case in which the Incredible Years Parent, Teacher, and Child Training programs were used to treat a young boy, John, with ODD. His problems were pervasive and occurred at home, at school, and with peers. This case study outlines how a multimodal, manualized treatment can be applied flexibly to attend to individual family needs and address issues of comorbidity.

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The Incredible Years Parents, Teachers, and Children Training Series: A multifaceted treatment approach for young children

The Clinical Problem :

The incidence of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Conduct Disorder (CD) in children is alarmingly high, with reported cases of early-onset conduct problems in young preschool children 4-6% (Egger & Angold, 2006) and as high as 35% for low-income families (Webster-Stratton & Hammond, 1998). Developmental theorists have suggested that, compared to typical children, ‘early starter’ delinquents, that is, those who first exhibit ODD symptoms in the preschool years, have a two- to threefold risk of becoming tomorrow’s serious violent and chronic juvenile offenders (Loeber et al., 1993; Patterson, Capaldi, & Bank, 1991; Snyder, 2001; Tremblay et al., 2000). These children with early-onset CD also account for a disproportionate share of delinquent acts in adulthood, including interpersonal violence, substance abuse, and property crimes. Indeed, the primary developmental pathway for serious conduct disorders in adolescence and adulthood appears to be established during the preschool period.

To address the parenting, family, child, and school risk factors, we have developed three complementary training curricula, known as the Incredible Years Training Series, targeted at parents, teachers, and children (ages 2-8 years). This chapter reviews these training programs and their associated research.

Although our programs were first designed and evaluated to be used as clinic-based treatments for diagnosed children, our recent work has tended our clinic-based treatment model to school settings and has targeted high-risk populations. As more is known about the type, timing, and dosage of interventions needed to prevent and treat children?s conduct problems, we can further target children and families to offer treatment and support at strategic points. By providing a continuum of prevention and treatment services, we believe we will be able to prevent the further development of conduct disorders, delinquency, and violence.

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The Incredible Years Program for Children from Infancy to Pre-adolescence: Prevention and Treatment of Behavior Problems

Effective interventions for children with conduct problems ideally target multiple risk factors and are best offered as early as possible. Conduct disorder becomes increasingly resistant to change over time, so early intervention is a crucial strategy for the prevention or reduction of conduct problems, violence, substance abuse, and delinquency. Children with ODD and CD are clearly identifiable as early as 3-4 years of age, and there is evidence that the younger the child is at the time of intervention, the more positive the behavioral adjustment at home and at school following treatment. Intervention that is delivered prior to school entry and during the early school years can strategically target risk factors across multiple domains; home and school, and through multiple change agents; parent, teacher, and child. Unfortunately, less than 20% of young children meeting DSM-IV criteria for ODD are referred for mental health services (Horwitz, Leaf, Jeventhal, Forsyth, & Speechley, 1992). Even fewer of those referred obtain evidence-based interventions.

To address the parenting, family, child, and school risk factors for children or adolescents with conduct problems, we have developed three complementary training curricula, known as the Incredible Years Training Series, targeted at parents, teachers, and children (from birth to 12 years). This chapter reviews these training programs and their associated research findings.

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The Incredible Years Programmes in Scotland

The Hospital Education Service provides education for children and young people attending or admitted to hospital. One of the main roles of this service is to ensure minimal disruption to children’s education during these difficult times.

This service is provided by Glasgow City Council and serves children and young people from 3 to 18 years of age from all local authorities in Scotland and, on occasion, from other areas in the United Kingdom. The service offers a range of interventions to support children and their families in addressing the additional support needs of children and young people with medical conditions and/or social, emotional and behavioural difficulties.

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The Incredible Years series: a developmental approach

Year: 2016 Bibliography: Webster-Stratton, C. (2016). The Incredible Years series: a developmental approach. In Family-Based Prevention Programs for Children and Adolescents: Theory, Research, and Large-Scale Dissemination (pp. 42-67). M. Van Ryzin, K. Kumpfer, G. Fosco, & M. Greenberg, Editors. New York, NY: Psychology Press.
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Abstract Rates of clinically significant behavioral and.
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The Incredible Years Series: A Review of the Independent Research Base

Year: 2014
Bibliography: Pidano, A. & Allen, A. (2014). The Incredible Years Series: A Review of the Independent Research Base. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24, 1898-1916.
DOI: 10.1007/s10826-014-9991-7
Authors: Pidano, Allen

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Abstract The Incredible Years (IY) parent, teacher, and child training series, developed by Carolyn Webster-Stratton, has been studied extensively over.

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The Incredible Years Series: A Review of the Independent Research Base

Year: 2015 Bibliography: Pidano, A.E. and A.R. Allen, The Incredible Years Series: A review of the independent research base. Journal of Child Family Studies, 2015. 24: p. 1898-1916. Authors: Pidano, Allen DOI: 10.1007/s10826-014-9991-7

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Abstract

The Incredible Years (IY) parent, teacher, and child training series, developed by Carolyn Webster-Stratton, has been studied extensively over.

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The Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management Program: Outcomes from a Group Randomized Trial

Reinke, W.M., Herman, K.C., & Dong, N. (2018). The Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management Program: Outcomes from a Group Randomized Trial. Prevention Science, 19, 1043-1054. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11121-018-0932-3 [spacer] Abstract This group randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluated the efficacy of Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management Program (IY TCM) on student social behavioral and academic outcomes among a large diverse sample.
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The Incredible Years Teacher Training: The Methods and Principles that Support Adaptation and Dissemination with High Fidelity

This paper focuses on the Incredible Years Teacher Training (IY TT) intervention as an example of an EBP that embeds fidelity and adaptation within its design. First, the core features of the IY TT program along with the methods and processes that make the intervention effective are described. Second, the support mechanisms (training, mentoring, consultation, and IY TT coaching) necessary to facilitate high fidelity of implementation of IY TT are highlighted. The goal is to clarify the underlying principles and layered supports needed to effectively disseminate the IY TT program to audiences with diverse backgrounds and skills who work with students with varying developmental, academic, and social-emotional needs. Often fidelity and adaptation are thought of as mutually exclusive, but in the IY model they are considered both complementary and necessary. Implications for school psychologists and prevention science are discussed.

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The Incredible Years Teacher Training: Using Coaching to Support Generalization to Real World Classroom Settings

This article focuses on the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management Training (IY TCM) intervention as an example of an evidence-based program that embeds coaching within its design. First, the core features of the IY TCM program are described. Second, the IY TCM coaching model and processes utilized to facilitate high fidelity of implementation of IY TCM by classroom teachers are highlighted. The goal is to demonstrate the use of coaching as a support system toward effective generalization of the IY TCM strategies among teachers with diverse backgrounds and skills who work with students with varying developmental, academic, and social?emotional needs. Implications for school psychologists, researchers, and implementation science are discussed.

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The Incredible Years Therapeutic Dinosaur Programme to Build Social and Emotional Competence in Welsh Primary Schools: Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial

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The aim of this paper is to present the research protocol for the randomised controlled trial (RCT) designed to primarily establish whether the IY Therapeutic Dinosaur School Programme, when delivered as a school-based targeted intervention, improves ?at risk? children?s social, emotional and behavioural competencies compared with a waiting list control condition.

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The Incredible Years Therapeutic Social and Emotional Skills Programme: A Pilot Study

Families of 97 children with early-onset conduct problems, 4 to 8 years old, were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions: a parent training treatment group (PT), a child training group (CT), a combined child and parent training group (CT + PT), or a waiting-list control group (CON). Post treatment assessments indicated that all 3 treatment conditions had resulted in significant improvements in comparison with controls. Comparisons of the 3 treatment conditions indicated that CT and CT + PT children showed significant improvements in problem solving as well as conflict management skills, as measured by observations of their interactions with a best friend; differences among treatment conditions on these measures consistently favored the CT condition over the PT condition. As for parent and child behavior at home, PT and CT + PT parents and children had significantly more positive interactions, compared with CT parents and children. One-year follow-up assessments indicated that all the significant changes noted immediately post treatment had been maintained over time. Moreover, child conduct problems at home had significantly lessened over time. Analyses of the clinical significance of the results suggested that the combined CT + PT conditions produced the most significant improvements in child behavior at 1-year follow-up.


As has become all too evident to researchers in the field as well as to the general public, the incidence of conduct problems in young children is increasing. Current estimates are that 7% to 25% of children are affected. This trend is disturbing, both in itself and in its social implications, for research has shown that the emergence of early-onset conduct problems in young children (in the form of high rates of oppositional defiant, aggressive, and noncompliant behaviors) is related to a variety of health and behavioral problems in adolescence – peer rejection, drug abuse, depression, juvenile delinquency, and school dropout (Campbell, 1991; Loeber, 1991).

In response to this growing social problem, a variety of innovative parent training interventions have been designed with the aim of reducing children’s conduct problems. The rationale for targeting parenting behavior as the primary focus of intervention arises from the considerable body of research indicating that parents of children diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD) lack certain fundamental parenting skills.

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The Incredible Years Training Series

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The Incredible Years Parents, Teachers, and Children Training Series, described in this Bulletin published by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, is designed to prevent, reduce, and treat conduct problems among children ages 2 to 10 and to increase their social competence.

OJJDP?s Family Strengthening Project has designated the Incredible Years Training Series as an exemplary best practices program. As such, the series has been subject to a quality evaluation, evidenced excellent effectiveness, and attained high overall ratings.

The Bulletin provides an overview of the Incredible Years Training Series, describes its methodologies, and summarizes program effectiveness, noting pertinent evaluations.

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The Incredible Years: A Training Series for the Prevention and Treatment of Conduct Problems in Young Children (Book Chapter)

Because Conduct Disorder becomes increasingly resistant to change over time, intervention that begins in the early school years is clearly a strategic way to prevent or reduce aggressive behavior problems. Our decision to focus our interventions o n the period consisting for preschool and early school years was based on several considerations. First, evidence suggests that children with ODD and CD are clearly identifiable at this age. Second, evidence suggests that the younger the child at the time of intervention, the more positive the child’s behavioral adjustment at home and at school. Third, the move to school – from preschool through the first years of elementary school – is a major transition and a period of great stress for many children and their parents. The child’s early success or failure in adapting to school sets the stage not only for the child’s future behavior at school and his or her relationships with teachers and peers but also for parents’ future attitudes toward their child’s schools and their own relationships with teachers and administrators.

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The Incredible Years: Evidence-Based Parenting and Child Programs For Families Involved in the Child Welfare System

This book chapter summerizes the Incredible Years Parent and Child Training Series: how to deliver IY parent and child core program principles and adapt the program with fidelity to meet the needs of intact families referred by child welfare as well as families where the children have been removed from the home. These evidence-based interventions have demonstrated ability to improve parent-child relationships and to build parents? own sense of competence and self-control as well as strengthen their supportive family and community networks. While it is not uncommon for child welfare agencies to seek briefer interventions than the Incredible Years, these families are complex and in the highest risk category for re-abuse and maltreatment if not adequately trained and supported. Data in the parenting literature support the notion that parenting curricula need to be substantial to produce sustainable effects with challenging populations (Kazdin & Mazurick, 1994). Data from the IY programs have shown that the dosage of the intervention received and fidelity with which it is delivered are directly linked to changes in parenting and child behaviors (Baydar, Reid, & Webster-Stratton, 2003; Eames et al., 2009). Our standard treatment recommendation for child welfare families referred because of abuse and neglect is a minimum of 18 2-hour parent and child group sessions delivered by accredited IY group leaders who have high levels of support and consultation.

Parent participation in the full IY program is expected to accomplish the following: improve the parent-child relationship; increase parents? sense of competence and self-control; increase the use of positive discipline strategies, predictable schedules and monitoring; and reduce the rates of harsh and physical discipline. Child participation in the full IY child program is expected to improve children?s emotional regulation, social skills and to strengthen problem-solving skills as well as attachment and trust with parents. In the long term, we expect that these improvements in parenting and parent-child relationships will lead to lower rates of re-abuse, fewer re-reports to Child Welfare Services and more academically, emotionally, and socially competent children. In order to break the intergenerational cycle of parent-child violence and neglect and child conduct problems, it is also necessary to provide enough training and support to therapists to assure program fidelity with the goal of these children getting the best parenting possible.

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The Incredible Years® Autism Spectrum and Language Delays (IY-ASLD) Programme for Parents delivered for Northern Health and Social Care Trust (NHSCT)

McAleese, M., & Nesbitt, A. (2018). The Incredible Years® Autism Spectrum and Language Delays (IY-ASLD) Programme for Parents delivered for Northern Health and Social Care Trust (NHSCT). Northern Health and Social Care Trust, Northern Ireland. Executive Summary This report presents the results and assesses the effectiveness of the Incredible Years Autism and.
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The Incredible Years® Group-Based Parenting Program for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Webster-Stratton, C., Dababnah, S., & Olson, E. (2018). The Incredible Years® Group-Based Parenting Program for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. In M. Siller & L. Morgan (Eds.), Handbook of Parent-Implemented Interventions for Very Young Children with Autism (pp. 261-282). Springer. [spacer] Abstract A new Incredible Years® (IY) Parent Program for preschool children with autism.
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The Incredible Years® Programs for ADHD in Young Children: A Critical Review of the Evidence

Murray, D.W., Lawrence, J.R., & LaForett, D.R. (2017). The Incredible Years® programs for ADHD in young children: A critical review of the evidence. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders. Advance online publication.  doi:10.1177/1063426617717740 Abstract This study evaluated the effectiveness of Incredible Years® (IY) programs for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children aged 3 to.
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The Influence of Group Training in the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management Program on Preschool Teachers’ Classroom Management Strategies

This study examined changes in preschool teachers? perceptions of classroom management strategies following group training in the recently revised Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management Program (C. Webster-Stratton, 2006). The authors used a pre/post follow-up design across 2 groups that each met for 8 sessions over an 8?10-week period for a total of 32 hr of training. Twenty-four preschool teachers from one of the lowest income and highest unemployment counties in the state of Michigan participated in the program. To examine short-term maintenance effects, the authors collected follow-up data 16 weeks after all teachers completed the training. The authors found improvements in teachers? perceptions of positive classroom management strategies and their use. Transporting this evidence-based teacher training program to schoolbased mental health service delivery settings warrants additional study.

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The Leader Observation Tool: a process skills treatment fidelity measure for the Incredible Years parenting programme Observation Tool (LOT): A process skills treatment fidelity measure for the Incredible Years Parenting Programme

photoBACKGROUND: Despite recognition of the need to deliver evidence-based programmes in the field of mental health, there is little emphasis on implementing such programmes with fidelity. Attempts by programme developers to ensure adherence to their programmes include the development of training, manuals and content scales, but these alone may be insufficient to ensure fidelity in replication. Observational measures lend themselves as a potentially useful assessment of intervention outcomes, providing accurate and objective accounts of the intervention process.

AIM: To develop a reliable and valid observational treatment fidelity tool of process skills required to deliver the Incredible Years (IY) BASIC parenting programme effectively. Methods An objective observational fidelity measure was developed to assess adherence to the IY BASIC parenting programme protocol. Observations were conducted on 12 IY BASIC parenting programme groups, attended by parents of pre-school children displaying signs of early onset conduct disorder.

RESULTS: The Leader Observation Tool (LOT) achieved high internal reliability and good code?recode and inter-rater reliability. Evidence of concurrent validity was also obtained. Conclusions Having demonstrated that the LOT is a reliable and valid measure of implementation fidelity, further research is necessary to examine the relationship between LOT scores and intervention outcome.

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The long-term effectiveness and clinical significance of three cost-effective training programs for families with conduct-problem children

Year: 1989 Bibliography: Webster-Stratton, C., Hollingsworth, T., & Kolpacoff, M. (1989). The long-term effectiveness and clinical significance of three cost-effective training programs for families with conduct-problem children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57(4), 550-553.
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Abstract We evaluated the long-term effectiveness of three cost-effective parent training programs for conduct-problem children. One.
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The National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices (NREPP) Intervention Summary: Incredible Years Program

Incredible Years has been used in hundreds of sites in at least 15 States (Arkansas, California, Colorado, Delaware, Florida, Kansas, Ohio, Oregon, Maine, Massachusetts, Minnesota, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, and Washington). The program has also been implemented in Australia, Canada, Denmark, England, Germany, Ireland, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Russia, Scotland, Sweden, and Wales. Incredible Years research staff have trained more than 10,000 professionals worldwide. Research articles for both U.S. and non-U.S. evaluation studies are available.

The parent training intervention focuses on strengthening parenting competencies and fostering parents’ involvement in children’s school experiences to promote children’s academic and social skills and reduce delinquent behaviors. The Dinosaur child training curriculum aims to strengthen children’s social and emotional competencies, such as understanding and communicating feelings, using effective problem-solving strategies, managing anger, practicing friendship and conventional skills, and behaving appropriately in the classroom. The teacher training intervention focuses on strengthening teachers’ classroom management strategies, promoting children’s prosocial behavior and school readiness, and reducing children’s classroom aggression and noncooperation with peers and teachers. The intervention also helps teachers work with parents to support their school involvement and promote consistency between home and school. In all three training interventions, trained facilitators use videotaped scenes to structure the content and stimulate group discussions and problem solving.

Costs
The cost of implementing Incredible Years depends on the amount of training needed and the components to be implemented. One-time start-up costs include $400-$500 per leader for leader training and $1,500 per series for program materials (the cost for the child program is slightly higher due to the price of puppets). Ongoing costs include $500 annually for each leader to receive consultation, $476 for each parent in parent groups, $775 for each child in child treatment groups, $15 for each child receiving the Dinosaur curriculum in school, and $30 for each teacher receiving the teacher training.

Read the intervention summary on the NREPP website (This link will open a new window)

The National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices (NREPP) is a searchable online registry of mental health and substance abuse interventions that have been reviewed and rated by independent reviewers.

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The Parent Infant Play Observation code (PIPOc): development and testing of a new positive parenting measure

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A recent UK government-commissioned report on early intervention stated that ?what parents do is more important than who they are? (Allen, 2011, p. xiv). The report emphasised the importance of support for families at disadvantage at an early age before behavioural and social problems become entrenched and more expensive to tackle. Children classified as securely attached in the first 12 to 18 months develop better peer relationships at pre-school (Sroufre, Fox, & Pankake, 1983) and achieve better academic outcomes (Pearson et al., 2011).

The increased emphasis on investing support for families before children enter school has increased the need for assessment tools that support and encourage positive parenting. Identifying the positive parental behaviours that promote healthy child development is challenging as many of the current observational codes have been designed for parents? interactions with older children. This article describes the development of a new observational code to analyse the behaviour of mothers playing with their baby in the first 18 months. The six predetermined positive parenting behaviours are analysed using video recordings from the home. Practitioners can be trained to use the code and a manual facilitates future researchers and clinicians to evaluate parent behaviour with their infant in a natural environment and with minimal disturbance to the family.

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The Qualitative Interactions of Children With Conduct Problems and Their Peers: Differential Correlates With Self-Report Measures, Home Behavior, and School Behavior Problems


This study examined qualitative aspects of the peer relationships of children with conduct problems in a laboratory assessment procedure. The sample consisted of 101 children aged 4 to 7 years identified by parents as having oppositional behavior problems. Positive social skills and negative conflict tactics were coded. Additionally, two categories assessing the reciprocal nature of the relationship were also coded, including behavioral “escalation” and “failure” to use social skills successfully with peers. Relations between observed peer interactions, child self-reports of peer relationships, observed and parent reports of home behavior interactions, and teacher reports of school behaviors were examined. Positive skills and failure to use skills with peers were related to loneliness and teacher reports of social competence, whereas negative behavior and escalation with peers were associated with school problems and home problems, respectively. Results are discussed in a developmental framework that highlights the potential importance of social behaviors within the peer context to later adjustment.

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The Role of Mental Health Factors and Program Engagement in the Effectiveness of a Preventive Parenting Program for Head Start Mothers


Head Start centers were randomly assigned to intervention (parent training) or control conditions, and the role of maternal mental health risk factors on participation in and benefit from parent training was examined. Parenting was measured by parent report and independent observation in 3 domains: harsh/negative, supportive/positive, inconsistent/ineffective parenting. Structural equation modeling showed that parent engagement training was associated with improved parenting in a dose-response fashion. Mothers with mental health risk factors (i.e., depression, anger, history of abuse as a child, and substance abuse) exhibited poorer parenting than mothers without these risk factors. However, mothers with risk factors were engaged in and benefited from the parenting training program at levels that were comparable to mothers without these risk factors.

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The Role of Parental Stress in Physically Abusive Families


This study examines the role of several components of parental stress in physically abusive and nonabusive families with conduct-disordered children. The 123 families studied were seen in a parenting clinic aimed at improving parent-child interactions in families with a highly oppositional child. Parent stress was found to play in important role in abusive families. Physically abusive families were significantly more often low income, had younger mothers with less education, more frequently reported a family history of child abuse, and were more likely to be abusing alcohol or drugs.

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The Role of Time-Out in a Comprehensive Approach for Addressing Challenging Behaviors of Preschool Children

This What Works Brief is part of a continuing series of short, easy-to-read, ‘how to’ information packets on a variety of evidence-based practices, strategies, and intervention procedures. The Briefs are designed to help teachers and other caregivers support young children?s social and emotional development. In-service providers and others who conduct staff development activities should find them especially useful in sharing information with professionals and parents. The Briefs include examples and vignettes that illustrate how practical strategies might be used in a variety of early childhood settings and home environments.

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La funci?n del ?tiempo de descanso? como uno de los m?todos para tratar los comportamientos desafiantes de ni?os preescolares
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The Role of University-Community Partnerships in Promoting Effective, Sustainable Practice Under Real World Conditions


Challenges to delivering evidence-based practice in the “real world” have the potential to undermine their acceptance, efficacy, and sustainability in community settings. The Incredible Years Series is one preventive intervention with demonstrated effectiveness in settings facing multiple dissemination challenges, including Head Start. We established a university-community partnership to deliver Incredible Years Series in a local Head Start, including the Teacher Classroom Management Training Program and the Child Dina Classroom Training Program.

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The Self-Administered Incredible Years Parent Training Program: Perceived Effectiveness, Acceptability, and Integrity With Children Exhibiting Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (Implementation article also)

ABSTRACT: This study examined the perceived effectiveness, acceptability, and integrity of the self-administered format of the Incredible Years Parent Training Program, for children exhibiting behaviors associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. To assess perceived effectiveness, an AB pretest-posttest design was used across 10 weeks. Improvements in parents’ rating of adaptive skills were replicated across five participants.

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The Webster-Stratton Incredible Years Basic Parenting Programme: Parental Satisfaction in a Community Group of Portuguese Parents


A powerpoint presentation of a study in Portugal with control group evaluating IY parent program. And a research poster of the study.

Location: Centro de Psicopedadogia, a research Centre based at the Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences of the University of Coimbra, Portugal.

History: In October 2003 a team had the first training in the delivery of the IY Basic with an US trainer at the Centro de Psicopedagogia.

Translation and adaptation to Portuguese of all the IY Basic materials (including the DVD?s sub-titles and the translation of the manual and of the book for parents).

In 2007 the first IY Basic group was delivered by the two authors.

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Therapist Roles in Facilitating the Collaborative Learning Process

Webster-Stratton, C. (2012). Therapist Roles in Facilitating the Collaborative Learning Process. In C. Webster-Stratton Collaborating with Parents to Reduce Children's Behavior Problems: A Book for Therapists Using Incredible Years Programs (303-377). Seattle, WA: The Incredible Years.   While the collaborative learning process is the underlying structure for the Incredible Years process of intervention,.
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Training interpreters to deliver the Incredible Years Parent Program: A cross cultural collaboration

One of the advantages of the Incredible Years (IY) Parent Training Program is that it can be tailored to meet the needs of parents from varying cultural backgrounds and to address the individual goals and values for each family and child. In numerous randomized control group studies, the IY Parent Program has been shown to effectively promote positive and nurturing parenting interactions, to reduce critical and harsh parenting and to reduce behavior problems in high risk children (Webster-Stratton and Reid 2003). The program has also been shown to be effective with parents of different racial and cultural backgrounds (Reid, Webster-Stratton et al. 2001). In particular, the program has been shown to promote positive parenting in African American, Chinese American, Asian American, and Hispanic parents ((Reid, Webster-Stratton et al. 2001; Webster-Stratton, Reid et al. 2001). Other investigators have replicated these findings with African American families (Gross, Fogg et al. 2003; Miller Brotman, Klein et al. 2003), Hispanic families (Barrera, Biglan et al. 2002), Korean families (Kim, E. unpublished manuscript) and multi-ethnic families in England (Scott, Spender et al. 2001).

Bringing the IY parenting programs to parents who speak different languages and who represent different cultural backgrounds is a special privilege and opportunity because of the rich diversity of the individuals in the groups and the chance for these families to learn from each other and build support networks. To deliver this program to parents who don’t speak English, it is necessary to partner with interpreters who share the linguistic and cultural backgrounds of the parents. We begin this partnership by offering joint interpreters and parent group leaders’ training workshops. In this training, group leaders learn about the values, parenting beliefs, and unique problems of each culture while interpreters learn about child development principles, relationship skills, and behavior change strategies as well as the IY parenting program content and methods. Two videotapes of parent groups showing group leaders working with interpreters representing four different languages form the basis for these discussions.

The article is based on transcripts of workshops between Dr. Carolyn Webster-Stratton, several English speaking IY parent group leaders and interpreters representing the following countries: Ethiopia (Amharic, Arabic, Tigrinya, Oromo), China, Vietnam, Somalia, and Mexico. The article begins with a discussion of the special issues and problems for new immigrant families. This information forms the background context for introducing the IY parent program and for addressing the goals that will be relevant for these families. Next principles of effective interpreting for the IY program and for training interpreters are reviewed. The final section includes program evaluation by interpreters after they have delivered the program in collaboration with a group leader.

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Transporting an Evidence-Based Classroom Management Program for Preschoolers With Disruptive Behavior Problems to a School: An Analysis of Implementation, Outcomes, and Contextual Variables

There has never been a time in the history of education and psychology when there has been a stronger emphasis on the use of evidence-based interventions (EBIs) in mental health and educational settings (Chambers, Ringeisen, & Hickman, 2005; Kratochwill & Stoiber, 2002). EBIs are well-developed interventions in which highly regarded scientific methods have established a program as effective. In the field of education, federal, state, and local governments reportedly spend over $330 billion per year on public education, including significant investments in educational interventions and professional development activities (Slavin & Fashola, 1998). Despite these expenditures, many school-based interventions have been inadequately researched or found to be ineffective (Kavale & Forness, 1999). Teacher training was specifically identified by the Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy (2002) as a domain in which existing practices have rarely been tested using rigorous scientific methods. Today, however, rising standards, accountability requirements, and national education legislation require that educational policies and practices are based on strong research evidence.

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Trauma-informed Incredible Years Approaches and Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavior Therapy (TF-CBT) Approaches To Help Children Exposed to Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs)

Year: 2017
Bibliography: Webster-Stratton, C.  (2017). Trauma-informed Incredible Years Approaches and  Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavior Therapy (TF-CBT) Approaches To Help Children Exposed to Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs).  (unpublished report).  Incredible Years, Inc., Seattle, WA.

Abstract

An increasing body of research identifies the long-term impact and health harm that can.
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Treating Children with Early-Onset Conduct Problems: A Comparison of Child and Parent Training Interventions

Families of 97 children with early-onset conduct problems, 4 to 8 years old, were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions: a parent training treatment group (PT), a child training group (CT), a combined child and parent training group (CT + PT), or a waiting-list control group (CON). Post treatment assessments indicated that all 3 treatment conditions had resulted in significant improvements in comparison with controls. Comparisons of the 3 treatment conditions indicated that CT and CT + PT children showed significant improvements in problem solving as well as conflict management skills, as measured by observations of their interactions with a best friend; differences among treatment conditions on these measures consistently favored the CT condition over the PT condition. As for parent and child behavior at home, PT and CT + PT parents and children had significantly more positive interactions, compared with CT parents and children. One-year follow-up assessments indicated that all the significant changes noted immediately post treatment had been maintained over time. Moreover, child conduct problems at home had significantly lessened over time. Analyses of the clinical significance of the results suggested that the combined CT + PT conditions produced the most significant improvements in child behavior at 1-year follow-up.


As has become all too evident to researchers in the field as well as to the general public, the incidence of conduct problems in young children is increasing. Current estimates are that 7% to 25% of children are affected. This trend is disturbing, both in itself and in its social implications, for research has shown that the emergence of early-onset conduct problems in young children (in the form of high rates of oppositional defiant, aggressive, and noncompliant behaviors) is related to a variety of health and behavioral problems in adolescence – peer rejection, drug abuse, depression, juvenile delinquency, and school dropout (Campbell, 1991; Loeber, 1991).

In response to this growing social problem, a variety of innovative parent training interventions have been designed with the aim of reducing children’s conduct problems. The rationale for targeting parenting behavior as the primary focus of intervention arises from the considerable body of research indicating that parents of children diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD) lack certain fundamental parenting skills.

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Treating Children With Early-Onset Conduct Problems: Intervention Outcomes for Parent, Child, and Teacher Training

Families of 159, 4- to 8-year-old children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) were randomly assigned to parent training (PT); parent plus teacher training (PT + TT); child training (CT); child plus teacher training (CT + TT); parent, child, plus teacher training (PT + CT + TT); or a waiting list control. Reports and independent observations were collected at home and school. Following the 6-month intervention, all treatments resulted in significantly fewer conduct problems with mothers, teachers, and peers compared to controls. Children?s negative behavior with fathers was lower in the 3 PT conditions than in control. Children showed more prosocial skills with peers in the CT conditions than in control. All PT conditions resulted in less negative and more positive parenting for mothers and less negative parenting for fathers than in control. Mothers and teachers were also less negative than controls when children received CT. Adding TT to PT or CT improved treatment outcome in terms of teacher behavior management in the classroom and in reports of behavior problems./p>

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Treating Children with Early-onset Conduct Problems: Key Ingredients to Implementing The Incredible Years Programs with Fidelity

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It is essential that sound theory and research support new treatment and that procedures are described elearly and are followed closely. This chapter describes the training, supervisory and organizational requirements to implement the Incredible Years (IY) Training Series to prevent and to treat early onset of conduct problems in children. Five key elements are identified and descussed.

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Treating Conduct Problems and Strengthening Social and Emotional Competence in Young Children (Ages 4?8 Years): The Dina Dinosaur Treatment Program


Young preschool and early school-age children with early onset conduct problems are at high risk for developing school drop out, substance abuse, violence and delinquency in later years. Consequently, developing treatment strategies for reducing conduct problems when aggression in its more malleable form prior to age 8, and thus interrupting its progression, is of considerable benefit to families and society. This article describes a treatment program, known as the Dina Dinosaur Social Skills and Problem Solving Child Training Program, specifically designed with developmentally appropriate teaching methods for young children (ages 4 to 8 years) and based on theory related to the types of social, emotional, and cognitive deficits or excesses exhibited by children with conduct problems. The treatment emphasizes training children in skills such as emotional literacy, empathy or perspective taking, friendship and communication skills, anger management, interpersonal problem solving, school rules, and how to be successful at school. Emphasis is placed on ways to promote cross setting generalization of behaviors taught by involving parents and teachers in the treatment. A review of two randomized trials with this treatment approach and long term results are provided. ?

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Treating conduct problems and strengthening social and emotional competence in young children: The Dina Dinosaur Treatment Program (Book Chapter)

This chapter describes a treatment program ? Dina Dinosaur’s social, emotional, and problem-solving child training program- that was designed specifically with developmentally appropriate teaching methods for young children (ages 4-8 years) and based on theory related to the types of social, emotional, and cognitive deficits or excesses exhibited by children with conduct problems.

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Treating Oppositional Defiant Disorder in primary care: A comparison of three models

Objective – To determine if a nurse-led or psychologist-led parent-training program was more successful than a minimal intervention in treating early childhood Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) in pediatric primary care.

The present study compared three models of intervention: an office model, with primary care nurses providing a moderately intensive parent training program; a referral model, with clinical child psychologists providing the same parent training, and a minimal intervention treatment without therapist contact. The Webster-Stratton parent training program we used has considerable empirical support and its videotape-based program seemed suitable for use by nonmental health professionals.

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Treatment Fidelity as a Predictor of Behaviour Change in Parents Attending Group-based Parent Training

The current study aims to investigate if LOT skills subgroups predict change in parenting behaviour, for parents with preschool children at risk of developing CD who attended IY PT groups within Sure Start areas in North and MidWales and the borders (see Hutchings et al. 2007 for full details of the trial). The hypotheses are twofold. First, it is predicted that greater exposure will produce greater change in observed positive parenting behaviours and change in self-reported parenting style. Second, it is hypothesized that observed change in positive parenting will predict change in observed child outcome scores, and change in parent-reported parenting style will predict change in parent-reported child behaviour problems.

Abstract

Background: Change in parenting skills, particularly increased positive parenting, has been identified as the key component of successful evidence-based parent training (PT), playing a causal role in subsequent child behaviour change for both prevention and treatment of Conduct Disorder. The amount of change in parenting skills observed after PT varies and may be accounted for by both the content of the programme and by the level of PT implementer process skills. Such variation in implementer skills is an important component in the assessment of treatment fidelity, itself an essential factor in successful intervention outcome.

Aims: To establish whether the Leader Observation Tool, a reliable and valid process skills fidelity measure, can predict change in parenting skills after attendance on the Incredible Years PT programme.

Results: Positive leader skills categories of the Leader Observation Tool significantly predicted change in both parent-reported and independently observed parenting skills behaviour, which in turn, predicted change in child behaviour outcome.

Conclusions: Delivering an intervention with a high level of treatment fidelity not only preserves the behaviour change mechanisms of the intervention, but can also predict parental behaviour change, which itself predicts child behaviour change as a result of treatment.

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Treatment of oppositional defiant and conduct problems in young Norwegian children: Results of a randomized controlled trial

Abstract – The efficacy of the Incredible Years parent training and child therapy programs was examined in a randomized controlled study including 127 Norwegian children aged 4?8 years. Children diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD) were randomized to parent training (PT), parent training combined with child therapy (PT + CT), or a waiting-list control condition (WLC). Assessments were carried out at baseline, posttreatment and at a one-year follow-up using standardized measures and a semi-structured interview. Both active treatment conditions reduced child conduct problems posttreatment as opposed to the WLC, while differences between the two treatment conditions were small and nonsignificant. About two thirds of the treated children functioned within normal variation after treatment, and the same proportion no longer received an ODD diagnosis at the one-year follow-up. Parental use of positive strategies increased after treatment, and the use of harsh and inconsistent discipline decreased as did mother experience of stress. The outcome of this study emphasizes the importance of offering parent training to young children with severe conduct problems exhibited at home. The findings and usefulness of the Incredible Years program in the present Norwegian replication study further support and extend positive outcomes of previous controlled trials conducted primarily in Anglo-Saxon ountries.

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Troubled Families Problem Children (Book: Chapter 4)

There is a rather large body of literature describing the content of parent training programs. For example, strategies such as Time Out, Beta Commands, Praise, Differential Attention, Response Cost, and so on, along with the behavioral principles that underlie them, have been carefully described in detail. But descriptions of the content of parent training do not elucidate the mechanisms or ongoing processes of parent training-that is, the processes and strategies which therapists can use to try to change or modify parents; behaviors, attitudes, and practices- and the literature contains comparatively little discussion of the actual therapeutic processes utilized by therapists in such intervention programs.

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Troubled Families Problem Children (Book: Chapter 7)

In this chapter, we present a number of questions and objections which parents frequently raise when we are discussing the various content areas. In raising htese issues and offering some explanations we might use in our groups, our intention is to help therapists prepare for the nature of parent discussions. If parents do not raise these questions, out of reluctance or for some other reason, we suggest that the therapist raise these issues him/herself in order to foster problem-solving and discussion.

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Two-generation psychiatric intervention in the prevention of early childhood maltreatment recidivism

Year: 2015 Bibliography: Constantino, J., Ben-David, V., Navsaria, N., Spiegel, E., Glowinski, A., Rogers, C., Jonson-Reid, M. Two-generation psychiatric intervention in the prevention of early childhood maltreatment recidivism. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 2015. In Press. Author: Constantino, et al [spacer] Abstract Objective: This article describes experience and early outcomes of a two-generation approach to preventive psychiatric.
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Understanding influences on teachers’ uptake and use of behaviour management strategies within the STARS trial: process evaluation protocol for a randomised controlled trial

Year: 2015
Bibliography: Hansford, L., Sharkey, S., Edwards, V., Ukuomunne, O., Byford, S., Norwich, B., Logan, S., & Ford, T. (2015). Understanding influences on teachers' uptake and use of behavior management strategies within the STARS trial: process evaluation protocol for a randomised controlled trial. BMC Public Health (15)119. DOI 10.1186/s12889-015-1486-y
Authors: Hansford,.
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Understanding the Needs, Preferences, and Feasibility for Parent Training in Hmong Americans

Zhou, X., Lee, R.M., Ohm, J., & Khuu, B. (2018). Understanding the Needs, Preferences, and Feasibility for Parent Training in Hmong Americans. Asian American Journal of Psychology, 9(1), 62-71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/aap0000095 [spacer] Abstract To provide a culturally competent parent training program for Hmong American parents, we sought to identify their cultural preferences and parenting needs,.
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Use of Coaching and Behavior Support Planning for Students With Disruptive Behavior Within a Universal Classroom Management Program


Even with the use of effective universal classroom management practices, some students will need additional behavioral supports. However, to translate implementation of new strategies into the classroom, professional development programs need to be adaptive to the complexities teachers face in providing instruction and managing classroom behaviors among diverse learners. Teachers also need support to successfully implement universal practices as well as to develop and enact plans for supporting students with disruptive behavior. This article describes a universal classroom management program that embeds coaching within the model. The coach supported teachers both in implementing universal strategies and in developing and implementing behavior support plans for students with disruptive behavior. The study evaluates the effectiveness of the behavior support plans and the types of coaching activities used to support these plans. Findings indicated that during meetings with teachers, coaches spent time action planning and providing performance feedback to teachers on their implementation of the behavior support plans. In addition, teachers reduced their rate of reprimands with the targeted at-risk students. Students receiving behavioral supports demonstrated decreased rates of disruptive behavior, increased prosocial behavior, and a trend toward improved on-task behavior. In comparison, a matched sample of students with disruptive behaviors did not demonstrate improved outcomes. Implications for practice are discussed.

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Using Mental Health Consultation to Decrease Disruptive Behaviors in Preschoolers: Adapting an Empirically-Supported Intervention

Impulsivity, hyperactivity, oppositionality, and aggression are behaviors that most three-and fouryear-old children display to some degree with up to 10 to 20% of preschoolers exhibiting these behaviors at significant levels at home or at preschool/day care.

This study provides an important first step in providing evidence to support the adaptation of empirically-supported interventions for use in mental health consultation when providing services to preschoolers with disruptive behavior problems. This study suggests that these interventions can be effectively exported from controlled clinical settings into community settings. These results will need to be replicated by training professionals already providing mental health consultation within the preschool setting to incorporate the use of the empirically-supported strategies into their everyday work with teachers and children. Having mental health consultation that includes empirically-supported interventions delivered within this collaborative framework available as part of the array of services will likely reduce the need for more costly treatments in the future.

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Using the Incredible Years Parent Program to Help Parents Promote Children’s Healthy Life Style and Well-Being

Webster-Stratton, C. (2018). Using the Incredible Years Parent Program to Help Parents Promote Children’s Healthy Life Style and Well-Being (Unpublished paper). Incredible Years, Inc., Seattle, WA. [spacer] Abstract It is well established that parents have a critical influence on the development of positive health habits and childhood development (Golan, 2006). Parents influence the food.
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Videotape Modeling: A Method of Parent Education


This paper has three general aims. The first is to review briefly some of the current research on performance-training methods so as to provide evidence of the benefit of using videotape modeling for parent training. The second aim is to describe the guidelines for developing and using a videotape modeling program. The third aim is to describe the content of one such program which was developed and researched by the author at the University of Washington.

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Washington State Child Welfare Report: Delivering of Incredible Years Parenting Program


From 2007-2009 the Washington State Child Welfare office has funded the training of family support workers and delivery of the evidence-based Incredible Years parenting program to families who had been referred to them for child abuse and neglect. Most of these families were classified as open cases and the program was highly recommended to them while other families were mandated to take the program. A total of 15 separate groups were offered throughout Snohomish, Whatcom, and Skagit counties with the average size of parent groups ranging from 10-19 participants.

Parents completed baseline measures and post-treatment assessments of parenting stress and child behavior problems. After treatment parents also completed program evaluations. These measures are described in this report.

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Webster-Stratton Incredible Years Basic Parent Programme (IY) in child care placements: residential staff carers’ satisfaction results

Year: 2014 Bibliography:  Silva, I. S., Gaspar, M. F., Anglin, J. Webster-Stratton Incredible Years Basic Parent Programme (IY) in Child Care Placements: Residential staff carers’ satisfaction results. Child & Family Social Work, 2014. 1-10. Authors: Silva, Gaspar, Anglin DOI:10.1111/cfs.12129 [spacer]

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to investigate residential child care staff satisfaction with.
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Weighing in on the Time-Out Controversy: An Empirical Perspective

Year: 2015
Bibliography: Quetsch, L. B., Wallace, N. M., Herschell, A. D., & McNeil, C. B. (2015). Weighing in on the Time-Out Controversy: An Empirical Perspective. The Clinical Psychologist, 68(2), 4–19.
Authors: Quetsch, Wallace, Herschell, McNeil

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Abstract Appropriate implementation of timeout has been shown for decades to produce positive outcomes ranging from.

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What makes Parenting Programmes Work in Disadvantaged Areas? (The PALS Trial)

Ensuring that a child is brought up experiencing warmth, love and encouragement within safe boundaries is far harder for parents who live in the stressful conditions found in poor neighbourhoods. Children raised in poverty do less well than children raised in more favourable circumstances on a range of measures of attainment and quality of life. Yet, if the emotional quality of a child?s upbringing is good, then the evidence is clear that children can succeed despite starting in less favourable conditions. This report describes an evaluation of what factors make an intervention effective in helping parents in one of the poorest parts of Britain give their children a better start in life.

This study investigated the factors that affect the impact of an intervention programme for parents of five and six year olds, and was called the Primary Age Learning Study (PALS). The aims of this study continue the tradition of other studies published by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation (JRF) on related topics, including recently Routes out of Poverty: A Research Review (Kemp et al. , 2004), Migration and Mobility: The Life Chances of Britain?s Minority Ethnic Communities (Platt, 2005) and Anti-social Behaviour Strategies: Finding a Balance (Millie et al. , 2005). However, while most JRF studies are observational, this study is one of the few that is an evaluation of an intervention; for example, it follows the evaluation of three ?Communities that Care? demonstration projects (Crow et al ., 2004). It is only the second we know of that is a randomised controlled trial, which is by far the surest way to determine effectiveness; the other was the study of the outcomes and costs of Home-Start support for young families under stress (McAuley et al. , 2004). The support given in Home-Start was very well received by parents, although it did not show any impact on parenting or child outcomes during the time period of the study.

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What really happens in parent training?

The need to help families with conduct-disordered children is particularly urgent, for these “aggressive” children are at increased risk for being abused by their parents, as well as for school dropout, alcoholism, drug abuse, juvenile delinquency, adult crime, antisocial personality, marital disruption, interpersonal problems, and poor physical health. Thus in the absence of treatment, the long-term outlook for conduct-problem children is poor.

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Who Benefits and How Does It Work? Moderators and Mediators of Outcome in an Effectiveness Trial of a Parenting Intervention

There is a modest but growing literature in the parenting field, based on secondary analysis of randomized trials suggesting that change in observed positive parenting skill may be an important predictor of change in child outcome. Furthermore, several studies suggest that, at least in early childhood, positive rather than negative parenting may be a developmentally more important predictor of child problem behavior outcome, based on converging evidence from both randomized intervention trials and longitudinal studies of natural development. We chose to focus on overt parenting skill as a postulated intervention mechanism, because this is consistent with the theoretical underpinnings of cognitive-behavioral parenting interventions, which assume that parenting skill is the primary mechanism underlying both development and change in children?s conduct problems.

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