Early onset of behavioural problems has lasting negative effects on a broad range of lifetime outcomes, placing large costs on individuals, families and society. A number of researchers and policy makers have argued that early interventions aimed at supporting the family is the most effective way of tackling child behaviour problems. This study forms the economic component of a randomised evaluation of the Incredible Years programme, a programme aimed at improving the skills and parenting strategies of parents of children with conduct problems. Our results show that the programme provides a cost-effective way of reducing behavioural problems. Furthermore, our cost analysis, when combined with a consideration of the potential long-run benefits, suggests that investment in such programmes may generate favourable long-run economic returns.
Incredible Years: Prevention
This study, one of the first within a European context, focused on a high-risk sample recruited from real-world urban settings and showed significantly improved child and parent outcomes following a parenting intervention delivered by regular, communitybased service staff. The findings reported here support the importance of early childhood intervention and the utility of evidencebased parenting programs in community-based services in different cultural contexts and in settings characterized by high levels of social disadvantage. This work is an important step in the development, evaluation, and delivery of empirically validated interventions for vulnerable young children with conduct problems and their families. These findings should serve to guide future policy and practice decisions for governments and practitioners who are considering investing in and/or delivering the Incredible Years BASIC Parenting program for children with behavioral problems in disadvantaged communities across different geographical and cultural contexts.
Background: Traditional Korean American discipline is characterized by a lack of expression of affection and use of harsh discipline.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to pilot-test the effect of the Incredible Years Parenting Program among Korean American mothers.
There is strong evidence for the effectiveness of IY with diverse parenting populations but this is the first known study of the programme with bereaved families. The findings support its use with such families where child behaviour is a concern.
Parents own grief reactions, coupled with the multitude of practical stressors, may impact their ability to provide emotional care and stability for remaining children (Worden, 1996). Pfeffer et al. (2000) stressed that parents can become so overwhelmed and consumed by their own loss that they become less aware of their children?s emotional state. Alternatively, a parent?s own grief may prevent them from being able to cope with their child?s emotional and psychological needs. A parent?s level of physical and emotional exhaustion following the death of a spouse or significant family member may leave them with few internal resources to handle the new challenges of parenting
School-based interventions involving teacher and/or child training have been shown to benefit teacher practices and to prevent conduct
problems and improve children?s social and emotional competence in developed countries; however, we are aware of no reports from a
developing country.We conducted a pilot study of the Incredible Years Teacher Training programme and a curriculum unit on social and
emotional skills based on concepts and activities drawn from the Incredible Years Dina Dinosaur Classroom Curriculum to determine if
this approach is appropriate for use with Jamaican pre-school teachers and children.
Both the government and local service providers in the UK are becoming increasingly aware of the possibility of improving child outcomes through the delivery of parenting programmes. Government initiatives, such as Sure Start, Pathfinders and Flying Start are a positive step forward, yet programmes sometimes fail to work in service settings. This article describes the components necessary to deliver effective interventions, exploring the need to choose an evidence-based parent programme, implement it with fidelity and evaluate the outcome. It describes the steps taken in North and Mid Wales to do this and reports briefly on the successful outcomes achieved by delivering the Incredible Years Basic Parenting Programme to the parents of high-risk children in Sure Start areas.
This study reports on analysis of official record data gathered on 237 primary teachers enrolled in the Incredible Years Teacher (IYT) programme during 2010-2011. IYT is a group based programme that provides teachers with training in skills to manage disruptive classroom behaviours. Before and after comparisons showed that after the provision of IYT teachers reported significant (p < 0.001) increases in the frequency of use and usefulness of positive behaviour management strategies. In addition there were generally high levels of teacher satisfaction with various aspects of the programme including: the overall programme; teaching strategies used in the course; specific teaching techniques; and workshop leaders. These findings provide preliminary evidence of the efficacy of IYT and teacher satisfaction with the programme. It is suggested that further evaluations of the programme are conducted using a randomised wait list design.
In 2002, despite recent efforts to curtail the number of children placed in out-of-home care, there were 532,000 children in foster care in the United States (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2004). There is a growing literature demonstrating the extensive mental health problems of foster children, particularly their high risk for externalizing and conduct difficulties, including noncompliance, aggressiveness, and emotional liability. For example, according to the most comprehensive study of children in the child welfare system to date (National Survey of Child & Adolescent Well-Being Research Group, 2002 47%), of foster children between the ages of 2 and 15 show elevated (T score of 64) rates of externalizing problems in the CBCL (Child Behavior Checklist; Leslie, Hurlburt, Landsverk, Barth, & Slymen, 2004). In a study of 426 children (ages 6 to 17) involved in the child welfare system in California, 42% had a psychiatric disorder, mostly attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder and/or disruptive behavior (Patterns of Care; Garland et al., 2001).
It has long been known that problematic children have an impact on their parents? behavior in reciprocal ways; children with externalizing problems (i.e., noncompliance, oppositional behavior, aggressiveness) elicit less positive and more negative discipline practices (Forehand, Miller, Dutra, & Chance, 1997). Negative mother-child interactions escalate into coercive cycles that deteriorate over time unless they are altered through effective parenting training (Patterson, DeBaryshe, & Ramsey, 1989). Over the past 2 decades, research has demonstrated that parent training based on social learning principles is one of the most successful interventions in the treatment and prevention of child externalizing problems (e.g., aggression, noncompliance; Horwitz, 1994).
There is a growing evidence base showing the efficacy of school-based interventions to prevent conduct problems but few evaluations have addressed teachers? perceptions of these programmes.
In this study teachers reported benefits to their own teaching skills and professional development, to their relationships with children and to the behaviour, social-emotional competence and school readiness skills of the children in their class. Teachers also reported benefits to teacher?parent relationships and to children?s behaviour at home.
In the UK between three and seven percent of children aged five to 15 years meet diagnostic criteria for conduct disorder (CD; National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence [NICE], 2006); boys are three times more likely than girls to have such problems (Hutchings, Williams, Martin, & Pritchard, 2011; Office for National Statistics, 2007). Children with early onset behavioral problems likely to develop into CD are at high risk for social and emotional problems, poor school attendance, school dropout, academic failure and delinquency (Webster-Stratton, Reid, & Stoolmiller, 2008). Over the last decade, teachers have reported increasing levels of behavioral problems within the classroom (Hutchings et al., 2011). These children are often taught by teachers who are ill prepared to cope with disruptive behavior (Webster-Stratton et al., 2008). They are also likely to receive less support and positive feedback from their teachers and their peers (Arnold et al., 1999). Exposure to a supportive teacher and a positive classroom environment improves the academic achievement of high-risk children (Werner, 1999). High levels of praise for appropriate behavior improve children?s behavioral, social, and emotional adjustment as does the use of proactive teaching and positive discipline strategies (Webster-Stratton et al., 2008). These studies demonstrate that there is a need for effective, evidence-based classroom intervention programs to support teachers.
Review of the Incredible Years (IY) Parent, Teacher and Child Training Curricula and summarize research on the effectiveness of these three programs for reducing risk factors and strengthening protective factors associated with children?s social emotional development and school success. The chapter will include a focus on the role of home-school partnerships in preventing and treating children?s behavior problems and improving their school readiness as well as practical tips for engaging schools in the prevention and intervention process.
While researchers have long considered intelligence to be a key predictor of success in school, recent studies indicate that the social and emotional adjustment of young children are strong predictors of early academic achievement even after controlling for variations in children?s cognitive abilities and family resources (Grolnick & Slowiaczek, 1994; Raver & Zigler, 1997).
Families referred to child welfare for maltreatment and neglect are frequently mandated to attend parenting programmes. Evidence-based parenting programmes (EBPs) are underutilized or not delivered with fidelity for this population. The Incredible Years (IY) Parenting programme is an EPB that has been proven to reduce harsh parenting, increase positive discipline and nurturing parenting, reduce conduct problems, and improve children?s social competence. There is also promising preliminary evidence that IY is an effective for families involved in child welfare (Hurlburt, Nguyen, Reid, Webster-Stratton, & Zhang, under review) and for foster parents (Linares, Montalto, MinMin, & S., 2006). The current paper describes how the updated IY parenting basic programme is delivered with fidelity to this population.
While cultural adaptations have been made for specific cultural groups, the appeal of the more ?generic? but culturally sensitive EBP is that it is cost effective and allows for more flexibility in program delivery because it can be used with heterogeneous cultural groups rather than single culture groups. Multicultural groups can also foster greater understanding among parents of differing cultural backgrounds and experiences leading to more tolerant and respectful communities. The challenge of this approach is to train therapists to provide the EBPs using culturally sensitive principles that are generalizeable across cultures. The Incredible Years (IY) Parenting program has shown promising effects in many random control group studies with diverse cultures in United States as well as in numerous other countries. This paper reviews the ?principles? embedded deeply in the IY program, which are designed to provide a culturally sensitive structure to the delivery of the program.
Low-income children often develop in environments that undermine adjustment and academic success. One key challenge facing schools serving children in poverty is that teachers lack the training and ongoing support needed to manage challenges these children present. The Incredible Years Classroom Management Teacher Training Program (IYS-TP) is one program that improves classroom atmosphere and teacher practices, encourages social-emotional development in the classroom, and ultimately reduces behavior problems and enhances school readiness skills among high risk, low-income children.
We have learned that IY can be disseminated with high fidelity and sustained over time. Some of the critical factors include selecting optimal clinicians to deliver the program; providing them with quality training workshops coupled with ongoing supportive mentoring and consultation, on-site peer and administrative support; facilitative supports; and ongoing program evaluation and monitoring of program dissemination fidelity. Certainly it requires a collaborative team to bring about innovative change. Although it may be tempting for convenience sake and short-term resources to ignore the growing dissemination literature, doing so almost certainly will result in weak and unsustainable programs. Given that there are considerable time and costs involved in delivering even ineffective programs, a much wiser choice would be to invest resources in programs known to sustain high quality evidencebased practices.
Casey Family Programs conducted an evaluation that provides some preliminary evidence of effectiveness for a child welfare population of an existing evidence-based program?The Incredible Years Parent Training Program. Information on effective models for this population is lacking.
Evaluating the implementation and outcomes of an evidence-based program in child welfare settings is an initial step toward addressing the gap between research and practice for improving the well-being of children and families involved with child welfare.
Abstract – This study examined the program satisfaction of the Incredible Years parenting program, Basic implemented and used in four Danish municipalities: Holstebro, Herning, Ikast-Brande and Aalborg. Since spring 2006 the parenting program has been a preventive service or treatment for parents with a child with conduct problems.
Conclusion – Some of the data are from the first round of the parent programs, starting in spring 2006, at the same time as translation and implementing the program began, and all the data in the study are parent programs lead by non-certificated group leaders. Under these conditions it is even more positive that the data shows a high satisfaction. It is important to have focus on the method integrity of the group leaders to ensure a continuous high quality of the parent program. It is also important to continue looking at the program satisfaction in the future to ensure high quality and to identify possible parts that could need further development or changes either because of error in implementing the program or in the program because of cultural differences in the Danish and American context.
The ability of young children to manage their emotions and behaviors and to make meaningful friendships is an important prerequisite for school readiness and academic success. Socially competent children are also more academically successful and poor social skills are a strong predictor of academic failure. This article describes The Incredible Years Dinosaur Social Skills and Problem Solving Child Training program, which teaches skills such as emotional literacy, empathy or perspective taking, friendship and communication skills, anger management, interpersonal problem solving, and how to be successful at school. The program was first evaluated as a small group treatment program for young children who were diagnosed with Oppositional Defiant and Conduct Disorders. More recently the program has been adapted for use by preschool and elementary teachers as a prevention curriculum designed to increase the social, emotional, and academic competence, and decrease problem behaviors of all children in the classroom. The content, methods, and teaching processes of this classroom curriculum are discussed.
This study evaluated the use of classroom-level behavior management strategies that align with School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SW-PBIS). Direct observations of universal classroom management strategies were conducted across 33 elementary classrooms in elementary schools implementing SW-PBIS with high fidelity. Findings indicate that classrooms had posted positively stated classroom rules at high rates, whereas teacher use of specific praise and the ratio of positive to negative interactions were less than optimal. Furthermore, classroom teachers with higher rates of general praise were found to report being more efficacious with regard to classroom management. In turn, teachers in classrooms with higher rates of disruptive behavior reported feeling less efficacious. In addition, teachers with lower rates of positive to negative interaction, who used higher rates of harsh reprimands and had higher rates of disruptions, reported higher levels of emotional exhaustion. Implications for developing supports to assist teachers struggling with universal classroom management strategies are described.
There is now widespread acceptance that evidence-based interventions treat a range of mental health and behavioral problems. Yet these evidence-based practices are often not adopted in applied settings. As a result, strategies need to be developed to overcome potential barriers to the widespread adoption of evidence-based interventions. Group-based interventions frequently rank high on lists of evidence-based practices, with studies demonstrating that well-designed group-based models are often at least as effective as the best alternative one-on-one approaches.
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We examined the relative contribution of a variety of risk factors, including maternal history and socioeconomic background, current levels of stress and social support, mothers’ emotional state, and parenting competence in relation to “pervasive” (i.e., at home and school) and “nonpervasive” conduct problems and low social competence. Findings indicated similar risk factors for conduct problems and for low social competence, with an ordered increase it eh number of risk factors from normal to “nonpervasive to “pervasive” groups. Harshness of parent style (i.e., slapping, hitting, yelling) significantly distinguished between the three groups for low social competence and conduct problems. Positive affect, praise, and physical warmth from mothers were positively related to social competence but unrelated to conduct problem
Servicestyrelsen har i perioden 2008-2010 i samarbejde med 13 kommuner afpr?vet to evidensbaserede familiebehandlingsprogrammer, hhv. b?rneprogrammet Dinosaurusskolen (DINO) og for?ldreprogrammet BASIC. Der har v?ret iv?rksat parallelle evalueringer af hvert af de to programmer, som dog afrapporteres samlet, da der er tale om to programmer og to evalueringer med st?rk synergi i form?l og design, som bl.a. giver mulighed for at anvende de forskellige programmer og kombinationer som interne sammenligningsgrupper.
DINO og BASIC er en del af den evidensbaserede programserie ?De Utrolige ?r? (DU?). DINO har til form?l at hj?lpe b?rn med adf?rdsvanskeligheder i alderen 4-8 ?r ved at tr?ne deres sociale f?rdigheder gennem gruppesamlinger. BASIC henvender sig til for?ldre til b?rn i alderen 3-6 ?r og giver dem r?d og vejledning i forhold til deres b?rn i grupper med op til 12 for?ldre.
Der er tidligere i evalueringen udarbejdet to delrapporter: Delrapport 1 indeholder en analyse af kommunernes udgangspunkt for implementeringen af programmerne, heriblandt m?lgruppen og den praktiske implementering. Rapporten beskriver de forskellige m?der, kommunerne organiserede og fortolkede de to DU?-programmer p?. Delrapport 2 har fokus p? effekten af de to DU?-programmer ved efterm?lingen, og med hvilken fidelitet programmet er implementeret. Denne rapport udg?r den afsluttende rapport i evalueringen af DU?. Rapporten belyser den umiddelbare effekt af deltagelsen i programmet samt den mere langsigtede effekt ved opf?lgningen 6-8 m?neder efter afslutningen og belyser s?ledes ogs? effekternes holdbarhed. Ligeledes belyser rapporten forskelle i kommunernes implementeringsmilj?, samt hvordan disse forhold p?virker fideliteten i programmet. Man kan l?se f?lgende i rapportens kapitler.
A key principle of this programme is modelling, a primary way of learning for both children and adults. The importance of nurturing parents and offering appropriate venues, refreshments and cr?che facilities cannot be underestimated. The overall atmosphere is one of support, not judgment. Parents are encouraged and challenged too. They are given the opportunity to think through solutions for themselves and consider the impact of their behaviours. Parents begin to model a similar style with their children, starting to understand how their child may be feeling. This is often the catalyst for an improved relationship and a decrease in undesirable behaviour usually follows.
A substantial body of research has clearly shown that young children with early-onset behavioral problems are at significantly greater risk of having severe antisocial difficulties, academic underachievement, school drop out, violence, and drug abuse in adolescence and adulthood. More than two decades of research has also identified a number of high-quality programs for parents and teachers which have been shown to reduce childhood conduct problems and strengthen social competence and in trun prevent secondary outcomes involving crime and violence. Rather the greatest challenge for schools is to select, implement, and sustain these programs for parents and teachers.
This article is about the successful implementation of the Incredible Years program and sustaining the program with high fidelity.
Early-onset conduct problems predict antisocial and criminal behaviour in adolescence and adulthood, including violent offending, and these problems occur with greater frequency in disadvantaged communities. Parenting is implicated in the development and maintenance of these problems. To address them the government in England and Wales is funding Sure Start services, but so far it has not specified that evidence-based programmes should be delivered. Sure Start areas were targeted to provide services for high-risk families in disadvantaged areas. Certain family characteristics such as low income, low education level, isolation, teenage pregnancy, high stress levels, single parenthood (or high levels of marital discord), depression, parental psychiatric illness or criminal history, and inconsistent, or harsh, parenting practices put children at high risk of developing conduct disorder and perpetuating particular family characteristics. Within disadvantaged areas there is considerable variation in crime levels. The purpose of this paper is to establish whether crime rates predict outcomes from a parenting intervention, the Webster-Stratton Incredible Years (IY) BASIC Parenting Programme, delivered in 11 Sure Start areas across north and mid-Wales. Parent participation in the programme demonstrated significant improvements in both child and parent behaviour. The current paper reports on the analysis of the effect of community crime levels on outcome. Regression analyses showed that crime rates were not predictive of outcome: the BASIC programme is effective in areas with both higher and lower crime levels..
Two long-term follow-up studies of randomized trials show that relative to controls, youth at risk for behavior problems who received family intervention at age 4 had lower BMI and improved health behaviors as they approached adolescence. Efforts to promote effective parenting and prevent behavior problems early in life may contribute to the reduction of obesity and health disparities.
Children?s aggressive behavior and reading difficulties during early elementary school years are risk factors for adolescent problem behaviors such as delinquency, academic failure, and substance use. This study determined if a comprehensive intervention that was designed to address both of these risk factors could affect teacher, parent, and observer measures of internalizing and externalizing problems.
This study provides preliminary data about a parenting intervention for families of preschoolers with early attention deficit hyperactivity disorder/oppositional defiant disorder symptoms carried out in two diverse primary care pediatric offices. Mothers reported improvements in parenting skills and a decrease in stress. Mothers and providers reported high levels of satisfaction. Results support the benefits and feasibility of providing parenting education groups to parents of toddlers in pediatric practice settings.
This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a parent training program in improving parenting practices, parents? feeling of self-efficacy and parents? perception of their child?s behavior, implemented in a child
Though the implementation of an evidence-based parent training program by professionals in a child protection service presents specific challenges, results suggest that it can contribute to improvements in parenting practices and in parents? perception of their child?s behavior.
The IY parenting program has positive impacts for parents with a history of reported child maltreatment. While similar benefits were observed for both groups of parents in this study, results support delivering evidence-based parenting programs of longer duration and higher intensity than often used by agencies in the community serving parents in contact with child welfare. Practice: Agencies serving parents referred for child maltreatment should carefully examine the characteristics of the parenting programs they deliver. Use of a parenting program that has a sound base of empirical support, such as IY, and sufficient intensity and duration are likely necessary to make substantial changes in parents’ child-rearing practices.
Parent engagement (i.e. enrolment, ongoing attendance, participation quality) remains ia major obstacle to fully realizing the benefits of evidence-based preventive parent management training in community settings. We describe an approach to parent engagement that addresses the myriad motivational, cognitive and pragmatic barriers parents face by embedding services in Head Start and applying a parent engagement model, the Family Check-Up, as a pre-intervention to augment parent training. In this article, we present the rationale for applying FCU to advance parent readiness for engagement and describe the process by which we partnered with the community to modify FCU to be most impactful for enhancing parent engagement in one specific programme, the Incredible Years Parenting Series. We conclude with preliminary data from our ongoing pilot trial that support our approach.
Parent engagement (i.e. enrolment, ongoing attendance, participation quality) remains ia major obstacle to fully realizing the benefits of evidence-based preventive parent management training in community settings. We describe an approach to parent engagement that addresses the myriad motivational, cognitive and pragmatic barriers parents face by embedding services in Head Start and applying a parent engagement model, the Family Check-Up, as a pre-intervention to augment parent training. In this article, we present the rationale for applying FCU to advance parent readiness for engagement and describe the process by which we partnered with the community to modify FCU to be most impactful for enhancing parent engagement in one specific programme, the Incredible Years Parenting Series. We conclude with preliminary data from our ongoing pilot trial that support our approach.
Parenting is not usually the primary problem for families. If there is mental health, domestic violence, trauma, addiction, poverty, service overload etc., those problems will prohibit parents from being able to focus on, believe in and follow through with parenting ideas.
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The Early Child Longitudinal Survey, a nationally representative sample of more than 22,000 kindergarten children, suggests that exposure to multiple poverty-related risks increases the odds that children will demonstrate less social and emotional competence and more behavior problems than more economically advantaged children (West, Denton, & Reaney, 2001).
Using Paired T-Tests, analysis of the 5 subcategories of Negative Parenting revealed that the Intervention group showed changes in the right direction in all five subcategories, 3 of these were significant changes; Critical Statements, Physical Negatives and Negative Commands.
Highlights of this evalutation are in poster format.
Children with disruptive behavior problems (DBPs) constitute a large group among those cared for by child and adolescent social and psychiatric services. Serious anti-social behaviours, such as truancy,stealing, robbery and drug abuse, are very costly for society. Therefore, from a societal point of view, it is important to identify DBPs and introduce interventions already during the preschool years, aiming to prevent pathways leading from oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) to severe conduct problems in middle childhood and adolescence.
The programme is effective in improving child behaviour and parenting competencies with parents of 8+ aged children.
These data provide convincing evidence of the effectiveness of the IY programme with parents of high risk youngsters aged 8 and above. Staff in regular service settings, even when relatively inexperienced, can achieve good outcomes when supported with training, supervision and adequate time and resources.
Management of behavior problems in an inpatient child and adolescent psychiatric unit is largely the responsibility of nurses, yet few evidence-based programs exist that prepare nurses for this role. A pilot study examined the effects of a 3-day standardized parent/teacher training program adapted for inpatient child and adolescent psychiatric unit nurses. Findings indicated that the standardized parent/teacher training program resulted in significant increases in self-reported use of child praise/incentives and working with parents, with accompanying desired changes in observed nurse behaviors during nurse?child play sessions. Participants rated the program positively and highlighted gains of greater empathy and fewer judgments of parents. Findings support evidence-based training programs for nursing staff and suggest further research.
Children in foster care have social and emotional problems at rates three to ten times higher than those found in the general population. During the elementary school years (i.e. 5?12 years), research indicates that disruptive behavior in children in care can negatively impact social, emotional and academic development, as well as placement stability. Evidenced-based interventions to improve children’s behavior and reduce parenting stress are necessary. This pilot study augmented an existing evidenced-based intervention (i.e. the Incredible Years) developed for birth families for use with foster caregivers. Results from 18 families indicate that foster caregiver-reported conduct symptoms were significantly lower for children whose families participated in the treatment group. A similar trend was found for the overall externalizing behavior. No significant changes were identified in parenting attitudes and stress. Participants reported high levels of satisfaction and acceptability with the program and outcomes. These findings indicate that foster caregiver training should be examined in larger, randomized control trials.
Christopher is a very active, outspoken 4 year old. He frequently engages in aggressive behavior and verbal outbursts, and to outside observers he looks angry most of the time…
This article describes an evidence-based intervention that was designed to increase children?s social and emotional competence, decrease problem behaviors, and increase academic competence. The Incredible Years Dinosaur School Social Skills and Problem Solving curriculum (Webster- Stratton, 1990, Webster-Stratton & Reid, 2003) has been shown in two randomized control group trials to decrease aggression and promote social skills in young children (Webster-Stratton & Hammond, 1997; Webster-Stratton, Reid & Hammond, 2001b). Originally designed as a small group treatment for children diagnosed with Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Conduct Disorder, a revention/intervention classroom-based version of this curriculum has recently been evaluated for all children (ages 3-8 years) targeting high-risk populations. Findings from a randomized, control group intervention study in 160 classrooms (including Head Start and kindergarten classes) with 1746 children indicated that classrooms who offered the Dinosaur School program had teachers who were significantly more nurturing and consistent with discipline, focused more on promoting social and emotional behaviors and were less harsh and critical in their interactions with children. Compared with control classrooms, children in intervention classrooms where the Dinosaur Curriculum was delivered were more cooperative with teachers and peers, were observed to do more problem solving and had higher cognitive and school readiness scores (Webster-Stratton & Reid, 2006). Additionally, a pilot study was conducted investigating the effectiveness of this intervention for use with children with special needs, including Autism Spectrum Disorders. Results included increasing the receptive and expressive feeling word vocabulary, increasing appropriate and prosocial responses to interpersonal problem situations, as well as increasing engagement during large group circle times (Joseph & Strain, 2004).
Parent training (PT) is an evidence-based treatment for reducing and preventing child conduct problems and abusive parenting. However, questions have been raised about the dissemination of PT to culturally diverse families who hold different views on childrearing. Group PT was applied in two Chinese immigrant families illustrating strategies for addressing potential cultural barriers. The Incredible Years program builds in therapeutic process elements to address cultural concerns to enhance engagement. In addition, augmenting basic PT with additional skills training can help parents manage stressors common in immigrant families to facilitate uptake of new parenting skills. This implementation experience suggested that high-risk immigrant Chinese parents can be effectively engaged in group PT, even when they are not in treatment voluntarily.
Théo, 3 ans, ne veut pas aller au lit le soir, se lève de nombreuses fois et finit par s?endormir dans le lit des parents ; Mélanie, 7 ans, refuse tous les fruits et les légumes, est très sélective dans les viandes, ne mange pas de poisson?; Victor, 8 ans, se bagarre avec ses 2 frères plus jeunes, casse leurs jouets.
Preventing conduct problems in young children as become a focus of early intervention efforts. Estimates show that 7% to 35% of young children meet the diagnostic criteria for oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder. Left untreated, children with early conduct problems face increasted risk of conduct disorders and school difficulties during early schooling and of school dropout, delinquency, and antisocial behaviors.
Mary and John, well-educated parents, were describing the problems they were having with their three-year-old-son. “He is unable to accept discipline, disobeys, has temper tantrums, demands attention, can’t get along with other children, and acts irritable and unhappy.” They had come to the Parenting Clinic at the University of Washington and were seeking help.
Many school-based interventions to promote student mental health rely on teachers as implementers. Thus, understanding the interplay between the multiple domains of fidelity to the intervention and intervention support systems such as coaching and teacher implementation of new skills is an important aspect of implementation science. This study describes a systematic process for assessingmultiple domains of fidelity. Data from a larger efficacy trial of the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management (IY TCM) program are utilized. Data on fidelity to the IY TCMworkshop training sessions and onsite weekly coaching indicate that workshop leaders and the IY TCM coach implemented the training and coaching model with adequate adherence. Further, workshop leaders? ratings of engagement were associated with teacher implementation of specific praise, following training on this content. Lastly, the IY TCM coach differentiation of teacher exposure to coaching was evaluated and found to be associated with teacher implementation of classroom management practices and student disruptive behavior.
This study examined group leaders? adherence to The Incredible Years Parenting Program?s components and collaborative process during a yearlong dissemination in a large multicultural city and universal prevention context. Mixed methods were used to evaluate adherence and develop an understanding of the barriers and facilitators of therapist fidelity. Results suggest that the protocol and collaborative group processes were implemented with a high degree of adherence with the three exceptions of role plays, videotape modeling dosage, and ?buddy calls.? A number of interconnected barriers with implications for future implementation were identified. Key contributors to adherence included the training and structure of the program, emphasis on accountability and ongoing session monitoring, and important aspects of supervision and group leader qualities.
Depression is a common and debilitating illness and there is a strong association between maternal depression and childhood Conduct Disorder (CD). This paper examines the impact of maternal depression on the outcome of treatment for the prevention of CD. Data from the Hutchings et al. (2007) Randomised Controlled Trial (RCT) of a parenting programme for parents of high-risk three and four year olds are used to explore the potential role of change in maternal depression as a mediator of child behaviour outcome. The role of positive parenting as an additional mediator was also examined due to previous research findings. Improvement in maternal depression was found to be a significant partial mediator of improvement in child behaviour. Maternal depression continued to be a partial mediator when positive parenting was included in the mediation model. Parenting interventions for the prevention of CD are more likely to result in improved child behaviour when they also address the skill deficits known to be associated
with maternal depression.
Aims: To assess the effectiveness of a parenting programme, delivered by health visitors in primary care, in improving the mental health of children and their parents among a representative general practice population.
Methods: Parents of children aged 2-8 years who scored in the upper 50% on a behaviour inventory were randomised to the Webster-Stratton 10 week parenting programme delivered by trained health visitors, or no intervention. Main outcome measures were the Eyberg Child Behaviour Inventory and the Goodman Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire to measure child behaviour, and the General Health Questionnaire, Abidin?s Parenting Stress Index, and Rosenberg?s Self Esteem Scale to measure parents? mental health. These outcomes were measured before and immediately after the intervention, and at six months follow up.
Results: The intervention was more effective at improving some aspects of the children?s mental health, notably conduct problems, than the no intervention control condition. The Goodman conduct problem score was reduced at immediate and six month follow up, and the Eyberg Child Behaviour Inventory was reduced at six months. The intervention also had a short term impact on social dysfunction among parents. These benefits were seen among families with children scoring in the clinical range for behaviour problems and also among children scoring in the non-clinical (normal) range. Conclusion: This intervention could make a useful contribution to the prevention of child behaviour problems and to mental health promotion in primary care.
Disruptive behavior disorders such as Attention Deficient/Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder are common and stable throughout childhood. These disorders cause long-term morbidity but benefit from early intervention. While symptoms are often evident before preschool, few children receive appropriate treatment during this period. Group parent training such as the Incredible Years has been shown to be effective in improving parenting strategies and reducing children?s disruptive behaviors. Because they already monitor young children?s behavior and development, primary care pediatricians are in a good position to intervene early when indicated.
This randomized trial targeted preschool teachers? classroom practices for improvement. Teachers (including lead teachers and assistant teachers) were invited to participate in five trainings on Saturdays, each lasting six hours.A behaviorally and evidence-based teacher training package was selected and purchased, and a seasoned trainer with Licensed Clinical SocialWorker (LCSW) qualifications delivered the 30 h of teacher training over fall and winter, adapting the Incredible Years Program teacher training module.
Using this experimental design and this model of intervention, what were the goals of this research project? Our long-term goal was to test whether this package of classroom-based services reduces children?s risk of behavioral difficulty and increases their chances of school readiness by improving teachers? classroom practices. While there have been a large number of experimental prevention trials targeting parenting practices for families with children with elevated behavior problems (for reviews, see Brotman et al., 2005; Raver, 2002; Webster-Stratton et al., 2001), we know of very few classroom-based interventions aimed at supporting teachers? practices in preschool settings. Yet, early educational settings represent a promising opportunity for interventions targeting children?s socioemotional difficulties.
Our experimental results suggest that classroom quality can be increased by as much as one-half to three-quarters of a standard deviation if programs make a clear, sustained commitment to program improvement by offering a package of intervention services that include workshops on classroom management paired with in-class mental health consultation. This is in keeping with findings from other recent randomized trial interventions targeting teachers? classroom practices (Gorman-Smith et al., 2003; Webster-Stratton et al., 2001).
Objective: The aim of the study was to extend research on the potential benefits of adding ongoing feedback, coaching, and consultation to initial therapist training workshops to ensure fidelity of delivery of evidencebased practices, specifically for the Incredible Years parenting program.
Methods: A randomized controlled trial compared two models for training therapists to deliver the parenting program for children at high risk of developing conduct problems. Therapists (N=56) from ten communitybased mental health service organizations in California were trained in either a three-day workshop model (N=25), based on active, experiential, self-reflective, principle-based learning, videomodeling, and manuals, or an enhanced training model (N=31) that included all elements of the workshop model plus ongoing expert coaching, video review of and feedback on group sessions, and consultation for therapists and agency supervisors.
Results: Overall fidelity across both conditions was rated >3 on a 5-point scale in seven of eight domains measured. Therapists in the condition that received ongoing coaching and consultation were significantly stronger in four of the domains: practical support, collaboration, knowledge, and skill at mediating vignettes. Conclusions: Consultation and expert coaching for training therapists beyond the standard three-day training enhanced skills and therapists? adherence to the model. (Psychiatric Services 65:789?795, 2014; doi: 10.1176/ appi.ps.201200177)
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Kevin was very reluctant to participate in a parent group, commenting,
The first night I went I couldn’t wait for it to be over. I couldn’t imagine continuing for 12 weeks listening to these family service workers who were two women I didn’t know tell me how to raise my kids, and then there were so many mothers and only two other dads in the group.
However, Kevin was drawn to the parent group by the prospect of the support he work receive. He reflected,
I’m not sure if I was abused or not, but I know I used to go to school with welts, from being hit. My parents had an ironong cord that they cut off an iron and stripped the rubber so it was bare metal. That is what we used to set spanked with.
The programme developed by Professor Carolyn Webster-Stratton had produced a significant level of research to suggest that it is the best way to treat early onset conduct disorders by teaching parents to change their behaviour which in turn changes their child’s behaviour (social learning theory). In Essex 296 parents have taken part in groups and self completed questionnaires have shown an improvement in all the following areas; family life, parent-child relationship, level child problem behaviours, frequency of child problem behaviours, strengths and difficulties, parental stress and general health. This shows that the Incredible Years Parent Training Program is a success.
Analyses showed a significant reduction in child problem behaviour and improvement in carers? depression levels for intervention families at follow-up, compared with control. Unexpectedly, there was a significant improvement in control carers’ self-reported ‘parenting’ strategies.Initial foster carer training could incorporate the IY programme to support carers in establishing positive relationships and managing difficult child behaviour. Programme participation may lead to reduced service use and improved placement stability.
The strategies used to manage children?s behaviour contribute significantly to the development, establishment and maintenance of conduct problems, and there is substantial evidence in the literature suggesting that parenting programmes are the most effective interventions for preventing or treating conduct problems, in the short
and long term, especially if delivered early, before the child encounters secondary risk factors following the transition to school. There is strong evidence for the effectiveness of the IY
Basic Parenting Programme in enhancing parenting skills and reducing child conduct problems, as well as improving parent child relationships with children aged three to eight years old.
Increasing numbers of high-risk children now spend time in out-of-home care during their pre-school years. Government, at national and local level, is increasingly recognising the importance of delivering evidence-based parenting programmes, to parents of children living in disadvantaged areas at risk of developing CD, but this has not been reflected in similar support to childcare staff working in nurseries in these areas.
A growing body of research provides evidence of the prevalence of childhood conduct problems and the long-term negative consequences that result. It also identifies parent management training such as the Incredible Years Parenting (IYP) programme as an effective evidence-based treatment. ?? As part of the Drivers of Crime work programme the Ministries of Education, Health and Social Development established a pilot study of the IYP programme to assess the effectiveness of this programme in reducing conduct problems in a New Zealand context. ?? The project was influenced by the recommendations of the Government Advisory Group on Conduct Problems, the Ministry of Education Positive Behaviour for Learning strategy and the desire to develop a new collaborative model to evaluate government-funded programmes. The benefits of the IYP training were broadly similar for M?ori and non-M?ori families. Both M?ori and non-M?ori parents expressed high to moderate satisfaction with the programme. These results suggest the IYP programme can be successfully implemented in New Zealand and retain its general level of effectiveness.
The current investigation puts forth the authors? conceptualization of a cultural approach to implementing evidence-based practices with American Indian (AI) families. Their approach involves two phases, the motivational phase, which sets an historical context for current difficulties; and the intervention phase, which links evidence-based skills with cultural traditions, beliefs, and values. Herein, they present preliminary evidence for the efficacy of the intervention phase, overlaid onto the Incredible Years parenting program.
Children who are looked after experience significantly higher levels of social, emotional and behavioural difficulties than children who live with their family of origin. Such difficulties tend to be pervasive and can have detrimental consequences for placement stability, and ultimately for the child?s ability to reach their potential. Government documents such as Care matters highlight the importance of providing ongoing training and support to foster carers to equip them with the necessary skills to manage the complex needs presented by children who are looked after. The nature of this training and support is often debated. With this in mind, Barnardo?s Professional Fostering Service piloted the Incredible Years Basic Parenting Programme with 13 foster carers. The 12-week programme was evaluated using the Eyberg Child Behaviour Inventory pre and post intervention. Results provide a promising insight into the potential of the Incredible Years Basic Parenting Programme as a method of training and supporting foster carers.
Most of the parenting programs in the U.S. are originally developed for Americans who understand American culture and common parenting practices. Therefore, when pilot-testing these programs with minority populations, it is important to examine not only the effectiveness of the program but also the cultural and linguistic appropriateness and usefulness of program content and delivery.
The goal of this study was to evaluate the delivery of a parenting program to 17 Korean immigrants for cultural and linguistic appropriateness and usefulness regarding recruitment, retention, program content, and delivery methods. Focus group interview data were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed. Themes identified included fit between the parents? desire and what the program offered, effective recruitment and retention strategies, program content and videotapes: based on western cultural background but useful, helpful role-play and homework, and recommendations (Korean language videotapes, longer classes, extended learning). The findings can be used in adopting the program to increase cultural and linguistic
When families are more involved there are positive outcomes for families, teachers and schools. Schools with high levels of parental involvement have better reputations in the community, higher teacher morale, higher parental ratings of teacher performance, and increased support from families (Henderson & Mapp, 2002; Heymann & Earle, 2000). These interrelated benefits are likely the result of involvement patterns that occur when parents are in contact with schools at levels they are comfortable with and the contacts are associated with increased comfort and endorsement of school. Overall parental involvement in school and in supporting children?s learning at home have received extensive attention in the literature. Less research has been conducted on patterns and teacher perceptions that can serve as a barrier to greater parent involvement. This study documented that teachers may feel less comfortable with parents of children who need the most support
The LEAP to Achieve Project trained teachers in effective classroom management practices using the Incredible Years (IY) Teacher Training program. The project aims to determine if classrooms who receive the training have a reduction in aggressive/disruptive and off-task behavior and an increase in academic performance. In order to better determine the effects of the training, some teachers received the intervention while others did not.
“I love project LEAP. It is a very good program for teachers. It gives so many examples on how to be positive with behavior in your classroom.”
This long-term study has demonstrated the stability of positive intervention outcome for families within this disadvantaged, at-risk, population, using both self-report and objective observational data. The relatively low drop-out rate and high mean attendance reflects the effectiveness of the intervention in engaging typically hard-to-reach-families. Positive effects of the Incredible Years programme are maintained over time for many children and families who are in greatest need. Up to 40% of untreated children diagnosed with conduct disorders develop later problem behaviours including drug misuse, criminal and violent behaviour.
Stripped of its dependence on video technology and other resources to be found in most US and UK schools, the Incredible Years prevention program has shown that with expert modification it can still be effective even in difficult social conditions.
Dyed in the wool prevention scientists will tell you that for a program to be truly valuable it must have the potential to be effective anywhere and in any conditions ? even in a country sometimes portrayed as being among the most dangerous in the world.
The location here in question is Jamaica. In 2005 more than 1,600 people were murdered on the island and there is widespread concern about violence in schools. The program under scrutiny is the normally resource-intensive Incredible Years, successful in developed Western conditions and a key component of a recently-announced public health initiative in Ireland.
The Jamaican experiment was led by Helen Baker-Henningham of the University of West Indies against the troubling background of a survey of more than 3,000 Jamaican adolescents conducted in 2000 by colleagues Kola Soyibo and Michael Lee.
A diversity of parent training methods have emerged. Parents have been trained individually and in groups, both in the home and in the laboratory, by means of didactic lectures, sddigned readings, programmed materials, group discussions, and videotape. Specific goals of the study were:
1. To examine the effect of the program on the mothers’ attitudes of confidence, acceptance, trust, understanding, and causation.
2. to examine the effect of the program in changing the mothers’ behaviors.
3. to examine the effect of the program six-to-eight weeks after termination of the program.
This bulletin describes state-of-the-art universal and selective prevention programs designed to promote parent and teacher competencies and to prevent conduct problems. In addition, it describes indicated interventions designed for children who already have been diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder and/or conduct disorder. Emphasis is placed on empirically supported programs that have identified key malleable risk factors in children, families, and schools, which have been shown in longitudinal research to be related to later development of substance abuse, delinquency, and violence. We have targeted preschool and primary grade chi ldren, ages 0-8 years, in this review because research suggests that the most effective interventions can nip in the bud risk behaviors in the early years, before antisocial behaviors become crystallized. Guidelines for selecting effective interventions are provided.
Pre-intervention, post-intervention, and follow-up measures of teacher strategies, teacher efficacy, and pre-intervention and post-intervention measures of child behavioural strengths and difficulties were combined with written structured teacher feedback to evaluate the effectiveness of an Incredible Years Classroom Management Training Programme (Webster-Stratton & Reid, 2002) delivered to 15 teachers from multiple schools in a single Irish Education Centre setting over a period of 5 months. Participation in the programme was followed by significant positive change in emotional and behavioural difficulties in key children on whom the teachers focused as part of their training and by significant positive changes post intervention and at follow-up in teachers’ sense of efficacy with regard to student engagement and classroom management. Limitations such as lack of control group and limited generalisability of findings are addressed.
New IY programmes for parents of toddlers and babies were recently developed in Seattle by Carolyn Webster-Stratton, Ph.D. The 12-week toddler parenting programme has been the subject of a Welsh Government funded separate evaluation. The eight-week programme discusses appropriate stimulation and aims to increase parental sensitivity to their babies’ cues, encourage the development of parent support networks and highlight safety issues. Parents and their babies meet weekly with two trained leaders for twohour sessions. Updates on their infants’ activities and development are shared in a safe and supportive environment. Parents are encouraged to implement the programme strategies in their daily activities at home.
The effectiveness of the Incredible Years Parenting program was evaluated in a low-income sample of Caucasian, African American, Hispanic, and Asian mothers whose children were enrolled in Head Start. Data from two prior interventions studies [Webster-Stratton (1998) Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66(5), 715-730; Webster-Stratton et al. (in press) Journal of Clinical Child Psychology] were combined, yielding a sample of 634 families (370 Caucasian, 120 African American, 73 Asian, 71 Hispanic) across 23 Head Start centers. Centers were matched and assigned randomly t either an experimental condition (8-12 weeks of weekly 2-hr parenting classes), or a control condition (the regular Head Start Program without parenting groups).
There is substantial evidence that improving parenting skills through parent training programs can significantly reduce the development and persistence of conduct problems and improve the quality of parent-child relationships (Kazdin, 1997; McMahon, 1999; Serketich & Dumas, 1996; Tucker & Gross, 1997). Specifically, when parents limit their use of coercive child management strategies (e.g., yelling, hitting, and verbal aggression) and increase their use of positive, supportive responses (e.g., encouragement, praise, and physically positive behaviors), child conduct problems and parenting self-efficacy significantly improve. These positive outcomes have mostly been achieved with early schoolaged children and adolescents. However, those findings have led to increasing interest in providing training for parents when their children are toddlers and preschoolers, before child conduct problems become firmly entrenched and more difficult to treat (Wakschlag & Keenan, 2001; Yoshikawa, 1994).
The authors tested a 12-week parent training program with parents (n=208) and teachers (n=77) of 2-3 year olds in day care centers serving low-income families of color in Chicago. Eleven centers were randomly assigned to one of four conditions: (a) parent and teacher training (PT + TT), (b) parent training (PT), (c) teacher training (TT), and (d) waiting-list control (C). After controlling for parent stress, PT and PT + TT parents reported higher self-efficacy and less coercive discipline and were observed to have more positive behaviors than C and TT parents. Among toddlers in high-risk behavior problem groups, toddlers in the experimental conditions showed greater improvement than controls. Most effects were retained one year later. Benefits were greatest when parents directly received training.?
Discourse on the application of PT with ethnic minority families has enumerated potential cultural barriers to engagement among parents whose own socialization experiences fall outside middle-class European American heritage. Given that parent?child relations and discipline practices are the proximal targets of change, many have cautioned that cultural barriers may threaten the generalizability of PT. Wide cultural variation in parenting practices and values across ethnic groups may influence receptivity to proscribed changes in parent?child interaction patterns, perhaps accounting for increased attrition or lowered participation among ethnic minorities. As such, PT interventions targeting ethnic minority families have been enhanced by attending to cultural barriers to engagement.
Early-onset behavioural problems such as aggression and non-compliance are the best predictors of antisocial and criminal behaviour in adolescence and Randomised controlled trial of a parenting intervention. Untreated, up to 40% of children with early difficulties develop subsequent conduct disorder, including drug misuse, criminal and violent behaviour. Early behavioural difficulties predicting long-term problems are easily identifiable and effective interventions prevent progression into more severe difficulties. There are severe financial costs if conduct disorder is not prevented. Utilisation of health, social, education and legal services is ten times higher for this population, mostly borne by publicly funded services, especially in areas of social exclusion. Parenting behaviour contributes to the establishment of conduct disorder and many children learn, develop, or establish problem behaviours because parents lack, or inconsistently use, key parenting skills9. When ineffective parenting is the problem, cognitive-behaviourally based parenting programmes can provide an effective solution but are more effective with younger children. When both child problems and parenting patterns are less well-established parents can more easily influence their children?s behaviour. One UK government strategy is Sure Start early preventive parenting support for families of pre-school children living in identified high-risk, disadvantaged areas. Since its launch in 2001 ?3.1 billion has been invested in the scheme11. This funding was provided without direction from government about which services should be delivered. As a result, widely varying services were provided, many lacking evidence of effectiveness from randomised trials.
Conduct disorder (CD) is estimated to affect 5-10% of children aged 5-15 years in the United Kingdom and the United States. For those children with early onset in pre-school years, CD frequently persists into adulthood, and predicts poor employment prospects, marriage breakdown and self-harming and/or anti-social criminal behaviour. The economic implications of severe behavioural problems in childhood are serious. It has been estimated that by age 28 the costs of publicly resourced services for those with conduct disorder in childhood were 10 times higher (?70,019) than for those with no behavioural problems (?7,423). Parenting is a key determinant in child behaviour. Parents who encourage pro-social behaviour have children with fewer behaviour problems. Parenting-training programmes are effective in helping families with children at risk of developing conduct disorders.
School-based social-emotional learning programs are cost saving for the public sector, with education services likely to recoup the cost of the intervention in five years. Lack of investment in well-being (mental health) promotion in schools is likely to lead to significant costs for society. The Incredible Years is a good example of an evidence-based intervention that can “go to scale”, and help parents and teachers work together to achieve common goals.
Conduct problems are the most common reason for referral for psychological and psychiatric treatment in childhood. The prevalence rate of conduct disorder is 5?10%. It can lead to negative life outcomes including criminal behaviour and psychiatric disorders, with increased costs to the education, health, social and criminal justice services. The study involved an evaluation of an universal school-based approach ? the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management programme ? which was developed in the US and implemented in Jamaica to help reduce conduct problems in young children.
The findings point toward the overall utility and cost-effectiveness of the IY TCM programme in an Irish context. The programme led to improvements in the classroom environment, including a reduction in teacher reported stress and negative classroom management strategies, as well as fewer incidences of disruptive behaviour amongst pupils in the classroom. Some improvements were also seen in teacher reports of social, emotional and behavioural difficulties in the intervention group children when compared to their control group counterparts including, in particular, a significant reduction in emotional symptoms. Teacher reports also underline the acceptability and benefits of the programme to teachers and possibly other staff within the Irish education system.
With the occurrence of multiple homicides on school campuses during the 1997-1998 and 1998-1999 academic years-such as in Springfield, Oregon and Littleton, Colorado-there has been a growing public perception that an increasing number of students may “go Off” at any time and cause serious harm to themselves and/or others. In response to this perception, school administrators, lawmakers, and prosecutors have recently “cracked-down” on juvenile violence. Metal detectors, security guards and police, crisis drills, “zero tolerance” discipline policies, and alternative programs for aggressive children are now found in many schools that previously saw little need for such measures. Several stats now require that children who commit violent crimes be tried as adults. Lawmakers have also proposed school prayer, mandatory student uniforms, mandatory use of “ma’am” or “sir” when responding t teachers, and the school-wide posting of the Ten Commandments as partial solutions to the widely perceived rising tide of school violence. Although well intended, too often such “solutions” have been misguided, based on little, if any, empirical research supporting their effectiveness in preventing school violence and promoting children’s mental health.
Emotional self-regulation and social competence play a key role in young children?s future interpersonal adjustment and academic success. Unfortunately, exposure to multiple poverty-related risks increases the odds that children will demonstrate less social and emotional competence and more behavior problems. School curricula designed to promote children?s social competence, emotional regulation, and school readiness that are offered to high-risk, socioeconomically disadvantaged populations in the early years would seem a strategic prevention strategy. This randomized trial evaluated the Incredible Years (IY) social, emotion, and problem-solving curriculum (Dinosaur School) as a selective prevention program for socioeconomically disadvantaged children enrolled in Head Start, kindergarten, or first grade classrooms in schools selected because of high rates of poverty.
The authors studied the effectiveness of parent and teacher training as a selective prevention program for 272 Head Start mothers and their 4-year-old children and 61 Head Start teachers. Fourteen Head Start centers (34 classrooms) were randomly assigned to (a) an experimental condition in which parents, teachers, and family service workers participated in the prevention program (Incredible Years) or (b) a control condition consisting of the regular Head Start program. Assessments included teacher and parent reports of child behavior and independent observations at home and at school. Construct scores combining observational and report data were calculated for negative and positive parenting style, parent-teacher bonding, child conduct problems at home and at school, and teacher classroom management style. Following the 12-session weekly program, experimental mothers had significantly lower negative parenting and significantly higher positive parenting scores than control mothers. Parent-teacher bonding was significantly higher for experimental than for control mothers. Experimental children showed significantly fewer conduct problems at school than control children. Children of mothers who attended 6 or more intervention sessions showed significantly fewer conduct problems at home than control children. Children who were the ‘highest risk’ at baseline (high rates of noncompliant and aggressive behavior) showed more clinically significant reductions in these behaviors than high-risk control children. After training, experimental teachers showed significantly better classroom management skills than control teachers. One year later the experimental effects were maintained for parents who attended more than 6 groups. The clinically significant reductions in behavior problems for the highest risk experimental children were also maintained. Implications of this prevention program as a strategy for reducing risk factors leading to delinquency by promoting social competence, school readiness, and reducing conduct problems are discussed.
Young children with aggressive and oppositional behavior are at risk for serious antisocial behavior that may persist into adolescence and adulthood. Most parents wish to discuss parenting difficulties and their child?s social and emotional development during well-child visits. Parent training programs are an effective option to promote positive parenting and discipline strategies and enhance a child?s social skills, emotional self-regulatory skills, and problem-solving ability. Key parenting principles can be incorporated into developmental surveillance and anticipatory guidance during periodic well-child visits to prevent disruptive behavior problems, address parenting concerns, and nurture the optimal development of children?s social-emotional competency.
Responding to serious behaviour problems requires new practice answers and emphases. Best practice principles and a developmental perspective indicate that the family should be the focus of preventative work. The Incredible years parent training series is described as an important example of an empirically-supported programme that is presently being used in Tauranga and elsewhere in New Zealand.
The early childhood period is associated with profound development across cognitive, social, emotional, behavioral, and physical domains. Early childhood mental health is characterized by social-emotional competence and behavior regulation within healthy and supportive relationship contexts. However, children may demonstrate significant disruptions in social, emotional and behavioral functioning from early on, with approximately 12% of preschoolers in the general population and up to 30% in high-risk, low income samples identified as having serious behavioral difficulties. These challenges are associated with an elevated risk of future emotional, academic, and relationship problems. Specifically, children exhibiting early-onset behavioral problems are at especially high risk for life-course delinquency, substance use, violent behavior, academic failure, and depression. Although conduct problems are the most frequent reason children are referred for mental health services, young children’s mental health problems remain underrecognized and undertreated.
As pediatric mental health problems have become more prevalent, pediatricians face the need to hone their skills in identifying and managing these issues in practice. The American Academy of Pediatrics has advocated for competency in mental health care for all pediatricians. Despite these recommended changes, ongoing deficiencies and barriers to developmental?behavioral pediatrics (DBP) training in residency persist, including inadequate faculty development, gaps in training, and funding. Graduates report feeling inadequately prepared to handle DBP issues.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether a short parent-training program (PT) reduces risk factors related to development of childhood socio-emotional and behavior problems in a non-clinical community sample. Data were obtained from parents in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) on PT for children aged 2 to 8 years (N = 186) at pre-intervention, post-intervention and one-year-follow up. There were significant differences in the changes in the two groups, with reductions in harsh parenting and child behavior problems, an enhancement of positive parenting and of the parents? sense of competence in the intervention group. The effects on parenting and parents? satisfaction all lasted through one-year follow up. Our findings suggests that a shortened version of a well-structured parenting intervention, The Incredible Years program, implemented in primary care at community level, reduces harsh parenting and strengthens positive parenting and parents? sense of competence, as reported by the parents. Issues related to a public health approach to promote positive parenting are discussed.
The programme is one of Webster-Stratton?s Incredible Years (IY) programmes developed and researched for parents, children and teachers. The programme is being offered to parents of pre-school children at risk of developing conduct disorder and who are living in identified Sure Start areas across North Wales. The programme is being delivered by certified group leaders through seven participating Sure Start centres across North Wales.
Identification and selection of an ‘evidence-based,’ ’empirically validated,’ or ‘best practices’ mental health program is only the first step in service delivery. In order to obtain similar results to those published by the developer of a program, attention must be given to supervising the quality of the implementation of that program. It is important to assure that the program is delivered with the highest degree of fidelity possible. Fidelity means that the program is delivered in its entirety, using all the components and therapeutic processes recommended by the developer. The Incredible Years Parent, Teacher, and Child Training Programs have been proven in numerous randomized control group studies to be effective for promoting positive parent and teacher interactions with children, strengthening children?s emotional, social, and self-regulation competence and reducing behavior problems in both prevention and clinic populations. A number of training processes are recommended to ensure that replication of the Incredible Years programs can be achieved with fidelity: standardized training, detailed treatment manuals, standardized session protocols, peer review, mentoring and supervision, and leader certification. This chapter will provide a description of these training methods and supervision processes to deliver the Incredible Years training programs with a high degree of fidelity.
There is a pressing need for cost-effective population-based interventions to tackle early-onset antisocial behaviour. As this is determined by many factors, it would seem logical to devise interventions that address several influences while using an efficient means of delivery. The aim of this trial was to change four risk factors that predict poor outcome: ineffective parenting, conduct problems, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, and low reading ability.
What can we do better with our programme delivery to ensure a higher rate of retention among participants of the Incredible Years Parent Programmes (IYP) we offer in the Central North Region? In particular, is there anything we can be doing more effectively that will enable Māori participants to complete the course?
Parenting programs for school-aged children are typically based on behavioral principles as applied in social learning theory. It is not yet clear if the benefits of these interventions extend beyond aspects of the parent-child relationship quality conceptualized by social learning theory. The current study examined the extent to which a social learning theory-based treatment promoted change in qualities of parent-child relationship derived from attachment theory.
The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS), a nationally representative sample of more than 22,000 kindergarten children, suggests that exposure to multiple poverty-related risks increases the odds that children who are socioeconomically disadvantages will demonstrate less social and emotional competence and more behavior problems than more economically advantaged children.
Childhood antisocial behaviour has high immediate and long-term costs for society and the individual, particularly in relation to mental health and behaviours that jeopardise health. Managing challenging behaviour is a commonly reported source of stress and burn out among teachers, ultimately resulting in a substantial number leaving the profession. Interventions to improve parenting do not transfer easily to classroombased problems and the most vulnerable parents may not be easily able to access them. Honing teachers’ skills in proactive behaviour management and the promotion of socio-emotional regulation, therefore, has the potential to improve both child and teacher mental health and well-being and the advantage that it might potentially benefit all the children subsequently taught by any teacher that accesses the training.
The present study evaluated preventive effects of the Incredible Years program for parents of preschool children who were at risk for a chronic pattern of conduct problems, in the Netherlands. In a matched control design, 72 parents of children with conduct problems received the Incredible Years program. These families (intervention group) were compared with 72 families who received care as usual (control group). Two years after termination of the intervention, it appeared that observed and selfrated parenting skills were significantly improved in the intervention group. Likewise, in this group, observed child conduct problems showed sustained intervention effects. The decrease in observed critical parenting mediated the decrease in observed child conduct problems over time. In addition, it appeared that parental influence increased over time.
Child depression is a serious public health burden without any currently accepted empirically supported treatments. Given the dire consequences of life-course persistent depression and the developmental roots of depression in childhood, effective treatments and prevention strategies are urgently needed. The parent behavior-management intervention used in the present study is a widely used and accepted treatment. Given mounting pressures toward time-limited therapy and the widely accepted high rates of co-occurring behavior problems in children, clinicians and researchers welcome any evidence that single interventions can promote change in multiple problem areas. Current evidence suggests that the parent behavior-management program tested in this study offers a viable treatment for reducing depressive symptoms in young children.
The Birmingham Brighter Futures strategy was informed by epidemiological data on child well-being and evidence on “what works,” and included the implementation and evaluation of three evidence-based programmes in regular children’s services systems, as well as an integrated prospective cost-effectiveness analysis (reported elsewhere). A randomised controlled trial (RCT) of the Incredible Years BASIC parenting programme involved 161 children aged three and four at risk of a social-emotional or behavioural disorder. An RCT of the universal PATHS social-emotional learning curriculum involved children aged four?six years in 56 primary schools. An RCT of the Level 4 Group Triple-P parenting programme involved parents of 146 children aged four?nine years with potential social-emotional or behavioural disorders. All three studies used validated standardised measures. Both parenting programme trials used parentcompleted measures of child and parenting behaviour. The school-based trial used teacher reports of children’s behaviour, emotions, and social competence. Incredible Years yielded reductions in negative parenting behaviours among parents, reductions in child behaviour problems, and improvements in children?s relationships. In the PATHS trial, modest improvements in emotional health and behavioural development after one year disappeared by the end of year two. There were no effects for Triple-P. Much can be learned from the strengths and limitations of the Birmingham experience
Background: Early childhood behavioural difficulties are becoming more prevalent (Collishaw et al., 2004) and increase the risk of poorer outcomes later in life, including academic difficulties, antisocial behaviour, criminality, and poor social adjustment. A growing body of literature highlights the importance of early intervention and prevention programmes, such as parent-training or school-based programmes, for the prevention and treatment of early childhood behavioural problems and promotion of child well-being. The Webster-Stratton Incredible Years (IY) Parent, Teacher and Child Training Series was designed for the early treatment and prevention of conduct disorders in childhood (Webster-Stratton & Hancock, 1998). The IY series comprises a suite of comprehensive, specially designed programmes, which target children aged 0-12 yrs, and their parents and teachers, with a view to improving social and emotional functioning and reducing or preventing emotional and behavioural problems. The implementation of the IY programme in several community-based agencies and schools in Ireland began in 2004 – spearheaded by Archways, the national co-ordinator of the IY programme in Ireland – as a means of preventing and treating emotional and behavioural difficulties in children.
Study 1 (Section 1): Examining the longer-term benefits of the Incredible Years BASIC parent training programme in Ireland
Study 2 (Section 2): Examining the longer-term utility and implementation of the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management Programme in Ireland
This article describes an evidence-based preventive group intervention, Incredible Years Parent Training Program (IY). Decades of research have shown that IY strengthens parent and child competencies and in turn reduces child risks for developing conduct problems and other negative life outcomes. The purpose of this article is to examine IY through a resilience lens and highlight how it capitalizes on group process mechanisms to serve as a model preventive group intervention. Future directions and implications for research, practice, and training are discussed.
Article not available
Effective interventions for children with conduct problems ideally target multiple risk factors and are best offered as early as possible. Conduct disorder becomes increasingly resistant to change over time, so early intervention is a crucial strategy for the prevention or reduction of conduct problems, violence, substance abuse, and delinquency. Children with ODD and CD are clearly identifiable as early as 3-4 years of age, and there is evidence that the younger the child is at the time of intervention, the more positive the behavioral adjustment at home and at school following treatment. Intervention that is delivered prior to school entry and during the early school years can strategically target risk factors across multiple domains; home and school, and through multiple change agents; parent, teacher, and child. Unfortunately, less than 20% of young children meeting DSM-IV criteria for ODD are referred for mental health services (Horwitz, Leaf, Jeventhal, Forsyth, & Speechley, 1992). Even fewer of those referred obtain evidence-based interventions.
To address the parenting, family, child, and school risk factors for children or adolescents with conduct problems, we have developed three complementary training curricula, known as the Incredible Years Training Series, targeted at parents, teachers, and children (from birth to 12 years). This chapter reviews these training programs and their associated research findings.
The Hospital Education Service provides education for children and young people attending or admitted to hospital. One of the main roles of this service is to ensure minimal disruption to children’s education during these difficult times.
This service is provided by Glasgow City Council and serves children and young people from 3 to 18 years of age from all local authorities in Scotland and, on occasion, from other areas in the United Kingdom. The service offers a range of interventions to support children and their families in addressing the additional support needs of children and young people with medical conditions and/or social, emotional and behavioural difficulties.
This paper focuses on the Incredible Years Teacher Training (IY TT) intervention as an example of an EBP that embeds fidelity and adaptation within its design. First, the core features of the IY TT program along with the methods and processes that make the intervention effective are described. Second, the support mechanisms (training, mentoring, consultation, and IY TT coaching) necessary to facilitate high fidelity of implementation of IY TT are highlighted. The goal is to clarify the underlying principles and layered supports needed to effectively disseminate the IY TT program to audiences with diverse backgrounds and skills who work with students with varying developmental, academic, and social-emotional needs. Often fidelity and adaptation are thought of as mutually exclusive, but in the IY model they are considered both complementary and necessary. Implications for school psychologists and prevention science are discussed.
This article focuses on the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management Training (IY TCM) intervention as an example of an evidence-based program that embeds coaching within its design. First, the core features of the IY TCM program are described. Second, the IY TCM coaching model and processes utilized to facilitate high fidelity of implementation of IY TCM by classroom teachers are highlighted. The goal is to demonstrate the use of coaching as a support system toward effective generalization of the IY TCM strategies among teachers with diverse backgrounds and skills who work with students with varying developmental, academic, and social?emotional needs. Implications for school psychologists, researchers, and implementation science are discussed.
Families of 97 children with early-onset conduct problems, 4 to 8 years old, were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions: a parent training treatment group (PT), a child training group (CT), a combined child and parent training group (CT + PT), or a waiting-list control group (CON). Post treatment assessments indicated that all 3 treatment conditions had resulted in significant improvements in comparison with controls. Comparisons of the 3 treatment conditions indicated that CT and CT + PT children showed significant improvements in problem solving as well as conflict management skills, as measured by observations of their interactions with a best friend; differences among treatment conditions on these measures consistently favored the CT condition over the PT condition. As for parent and child behavior at home, PT and CT + PT parents and children had significantly more positive interactions, compared with CT parents and children. One-year follow-up assessments indicated that all the significant changes noted immediately post treatment had been maintained over time. Moreover, child conduct problems at home had significantly lessened over time. Analyses of the clinical significance of the results suggested that the combined CT + PT conditions produced the most significant improvements in child behavior at 1-year follow-up.
As has become all too evident to researchers in the field as well as to the general public, the incidence of conduct problems in young children is increasing. Current estimates are that 7% to 25% of children are affected. This trend is disturbing, both in itself and in its social implications, for research has shown that the emergence of early-onset conduct problems in young children (in the form of high rates of oppositional defiant, aggressive, and noncompliant behaviors) is related to a variety of health and behavioral problems in adolescence – peer rejection, drug abuse, depression, juvenile delinquency, and school dropout (Campbell, 1991; Loeber, 1991).
In response to this growing social problem, a variety of innovative parent training interventions have been designed with the aim of reducing children’s conduct problems. The rationale for targeting parenting behavior as the primary focus of intervention arises from the considerable body of research indicating that parents of children diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD) lack certain fundamental parenting skills.
Because Conduct Disorder becomes increasingly resistant to change over time, intervention that begins in the early school years is clearly a strategic way to prevent or reduce aggressive behavior problems. Our decision to focus our interventions o n the period consisting for preschool and early school years was based on several considerations. First, evidence suggests that children with ODD and CD are clearly identifiable at this age. Second, evidence suggests that the younger the child at the time of intervention, the more positive the child’s behavioral adjustment at home and at school. Third, the move to school – from preschool through the first years of elementary school – is a major transition and a period of great stress for many children and their parents. The child’s early success or failure in adapting to school sets the stage not only for the child’s future behavior at school and his or her relationships with teachers and peers but also for parents’ future attitudes toward their child’s schools and their own relationships with teachers and administrators.
This book chapter summerizes the Incredible Years Parent and Child Training Series: how to deliver IY parent and child core program principles and adapt the program with fidelity to meet the needs of intact families referred by child welfare as well as families where the children have been removed from the home. These evidence-based interventions have demonstrated ability to improve parent-child relationships and to build parents? own sense of competence and self-control as well as strengthen their supportive family and community networks. While it is not uncommon for child welfare agencies to seek briefer interventions than the Incredible Years, these families are complex and in the highest risk category for re-abuse and maltreatment if not adequately trained and supported. Data in the parenting literature support the notion that parenting curricula need to be substantial to produce sustainable effects with challenging populations (Kazdin & Mazurick, 1994). Data from the IY programs have shown that the dosage of the intervention received and fidelity with which it is delivered are directly linked to changes in parenting and child behaviors (Baydar, Reid, & Webster-Stratton, 2003; Eames et al., 2009). Our standard treatment recommendation for child welfare families referred because of abuse and neglect is a minimum of 18 2-hour parent and child group sessions delivered by accredited IY group leaders who have high levels of support and consultation.
Parent participation in the full IY program is expected to accomplish the following: improve the parent-child relationship; increase parents? sense of competence and self-control; increase the use of positive discipline strategies, predictable schedules and monitoring; and reduce the rates of harsh and physical discipline. Child participation in the full IY child program is expected to improve children?s emotional regulation, social skills and to strengthen problem-solving skills as well as attachment and trust with parents. In the long term, we expect that these improvements in parenting and parent-child relationships will lead to lower rates of re-abuse, fewer re-reports to Child Welfare Services and more academically, emotionally, and socially competent children. In order to break the intergenerational cycle of parent-child violence and neglect and child conduct problems, it is also necessary to provide enough training and support to therapists to assure program fidelity with the goal of these children getting the best parenting possible.
This artcle summarizes the Incredible Years Series. The training series consists of three empirically validated and integrated programs for parents, teachers and children that are designed to promote social competence and prevent, reduce and treat conduct problems in young children. The training methods, content and processes are explained.
This study examined changes in preschool teachers? perceptions of classroom management strategies following group training in the recently revised Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management Program (C. Webster-Stratton, 2006). The authors used a pre/post follow-up design across 2 groups that each met for 8 sessions over an 8?10-week period for a total of 32 hr of training. Twenty-four preschool teachers from one of the lowest income and highest unemployment counties in the state of Michigan participated in the program. To examine short-term maintenance effects, the authors collected follow-up data 16 weeks after all teachers completed the training. The authors found improvements in teachers? perceptions of positive classroom management strategies and their use. Transporting this evidence-based teacher training program to schoolbased mental health service delivery settings warrants additional study.
BACKGROUND: Despite recognition of the need to deliver evidence-based programmes in the field of mental health, there is little emphasis on implementing such programmes with fidelity. Attempts by programme developers to ensure adherence to their programmes include the development of training, manuals and content scales, but these alone may be insufficient to ensure fidelity in replication. Observational measures lend themselves as a potentially useful assessment of intervention outcomes, providing accurate and objective accounts of the intervention process.
AIM: To develop a reliable and valid observational treatment fidelity tool of process skills required to deliver the Incredible Years (IY) BASIC parenting programme effectively. Methods An objective observational fidelity measure was developed to assess adherence to the IY BASIC parenting programme protocol. Observations were conducted on 12 IY BASIC parenting programme groups, attended by parents of pre-school children displaying signs of early onset conduct disorder.
RESULTS: The Leader Observation Tool (LOT) achieved high internal reliability and good code?recode and inter-rater reliability. Evidence of concurrent validity was also obtained. Conclusions Having demonstrated that the LOT is a reliable and valid measure of implementation fidelity, further research is necessary to examine the relationship between LOT scores and intervention outcome.
Head Start centers were randomly assigned to intervention (parent training) or control conditions, and the role of maternal mental health risk factors on participation in and benefit from parent training was examined. Parenting was measured by parent report and independent observation in 3 domains: harsh/negative, supportive/positive, inconsistent/ineffective parenting. Structural equation modeling showed that parent engagement training was associated with improved parenting in a dose-response fashion. Mothers with mental health risk factors (i.e., depression, anger, history of abuse as a child, and substance abuse) exhibited poorer parenting than mothers without these risk factors. However, mothers with risk factors were engaged in and benefited from the parenting training program at levels that were comparable to mothers without these risk factors.
A powerpoint presentation of a study in Portugal with control group evaluating IY parent program. And a research poster of the study.
Location: Centro de Psicopedadogia, a research Centre based at the Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences of the University of Coimbra, Portugal.
History: In October 2003 a team had the first training in the delivery of the IY Basic with an US trainer at the Centro de Psicopedagogia.
Translation and adaptation to Portuguese of all the IY Basic materials (including the DVD?s sub-titles and the translation of the manual and of the book for parents).
In 2007 the first IY Basic group was delivered by the two authors.
One of the advantages of the Incredible Years (IY) Parent Training Program is that it can be tailored to meet the needs of parents from varying cultural backgrounds and to address the individual goals and values for each family and child. In numerous randomized control group studies, the IY Parent Program has been shown to effectively promote positive and nurturing parenting interactions, to reduce critical and harsh parenting and to reduce behavior problems in high risk children (Webster-Stratton and Reid 2003). The program has also been shown to be effective with parents of different racial and cultural backgrounds (Reid, Webster-Stratton et al. 2001). In particular, the program has been shown to promote positive parenting in African American, Chinese American, Asian American, and Hispanic parents ((Reid, Webster-Stratton et al. 2001; Webster-Stratton, Reid et al. 2001). Other investigators have replicated these findings with African American families (Gross, Fogg et al. 2003; Miller Brotman, Klein et al. 2003), Hispanic families (Barrera, Biglan et al. 2002), Korean families (Kim, E. unpublished manuscript) and multi-ethnic families in England (Scott, Spender et al. 2001).
Bringing the IY parenting programs to parents who speak different languages and who represent different cultural backgrounds is a special privilege and opportunity because of the rich diversity of the individuals in the groups and the chance for these families to learn from each other and build support networks. To deliver this program to parents who don’t speak English, it is necessary to partner with interpreters who share the linguistic and cultural backgrounds of the parents. We begin this partnership by offering joint interpreters and parent group leaders’ training workshops. In this training, group leaders learn about the values, parenting beliefs, and unique problems of each culture while interpreters learn about child development principles, relationship skills, and behavior change strategies as well as the IY parenting program content and methods. Two videotapes of parent groups showing group leaders working with interpreters representing four different languages form the basis for these discussions.
The article is based on transcripts of workshops between Dr. Carolyn Webster-Stratton, several English speaking IY parent group leaders and interpreters representing the following countries: Ethiopia (Amharic, Arabic, Tigrinya, Oromo), China, Vietnam, Somalia, and Mexico. The article begins with a discussion of the special issues and problems for new immigrant families. This information forms the background context for introducing the IY parent program and for addressing the goals that will be relevant for these families. Next principles of effective interpreting for the IY program and for training interpreters are reviewed. The final section includes program evaluation by interpreters after they have delivered the program in collaboration with a group leader.
The current study aims to investigate if LOT skills subgroups predict change in parenting behaviour, for parents with preschool children at risk of developing CD who attended IY PT groups within Sure Start areas in North and MidWales and the borders (see Hutchings et al. 2007 for full details of the trial). The hypotheses are twofold. First, it is predicted that greater exposure will produce greater change in observed positive parenting behaviours and change in self-reported parenting style. Second, it is hypothesized that observed change in positive parenting will predict change in observed child outcome scores, and change in parent-reported parenting style will predict change in parent-reported child behaviour problems.
Background: Change in parenting skills, particularly increased positive parenting, has been identified as the key component of successful evidence-based parent training (PT), playing a causal role in subsequent child behaviour change for both prevention and treatment of Conduct Disorder. The amount of change in parenting skills observed after PT varies and may be accounted for by both the content of the programme and by the level of PT implementer process skills. Such variation in implementer skills is an important component in the assessment of treatment fidelity, itself an essential factor in successful intervention outcome.
Aims: To establish whether the Leader Observation Tool, a reliable and valid process skills fidelity measure, can predict change in parenting skills after attendance on the Incredible Years PT programme.
Results: Positive leader skills categories of the Leader Observation Tool significantly predicted change in both parent-reported and independently observed parenting skills behaviour, which in turn, predicted change in child behaviour outcome.
Conclusions: Delivering an intervention with a high level of treatment fidelity not only preserves the behaviour change mechanisms of the intervention, but can also predict parental behaviour change, which itself predicts child behaviour change as a result of treatment.
Even with the use of effective universal classroom management practices, some students will need additional behavioral supports. However, to translate implementation of new strategies into the classroom, professional development programs need to be adaptive to the complexities teachers face in providing instruction and managing classroom behaviors among diverse learners. Teachers also need support to successfully implement universal practices as well as to develop and enact plans for supporting students with disruptive behavior. This article describes a universal classroom management program that embeds coaching within the model. The coach supported teachers both in implementing universal strategies and in developing and implementing behavior support plans for students with disruptive behavior. The study evaluates the effectiveness of the behavior support plans and the types of coaching activities used to support these plans. Findings indicated that during meetings with teachers, coaches spent time action planning and providing performance feedback to teachers on their implementation of the behavior support plans. In addition, teachers reduced their rate of reprimands with the targeted at-risk students. Students receiving behavioral supports demonstrated decreased rates of disruptive behavior, increased prosocial behavior, and a trend toward improved on-task behavior. In comparison, a matched sample of students with disruptive behaviors did not demonstrate improved outcomes. Implications for practice are discussed.
From 2007-2009 the Washington State Child Welfare office has funded the training of family support workers and delivery of the evidence-based Incredible Years parenting program to families who had been referred to them for child abuse and neglect. Most of these families were classified as open cases and the program was highly recommended to them while other families were mandated to take the program. A total of 15 separate groups were offered throughout Snohomish, Whatcom, and Skagit counties with the average size of parent groups ranging from 10-19 participants.
Parents completed baseline measures and post-treatment assessments of parenting stress and child behavior problems. After treatment parents also completed program evaluations. These measures are described in this report.
Ensuring that a child is brought up experiencing warmth, love and encouragement within safe boundaries is far harder for parents who live in the stressful conditions found in poor neighbourhoods. Children raised in poverty do less well than children raised in more favourable circumstances on a range of measures of attainment and quality of life. Yet, if the emotional quality of a child?s upbringing is good, then the evidence is clear that children can succeed despite starting in less favourable conditions. This report describes an evaluation of what factors make an intervention effective in helping parents in one of the poorest parts of Britain give their children a better start in life.
This study investigated the factors that affect the impact of an intervention programme for parents of five and six year olds, and was called the Primary Age Learning Study (PALS). The aims of this study continue the tradition of other studies published by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation (JRF) on related topics, including recently Routes out of Poverty: A Research Review (Kemp et al. , 2004), Migration and Mobility: The Life Chances of Britain?s Minority Ethnic Communities (Platt, 2005) and Anti-social Behaviour Strategies: Finding a Balance (Millie et al. , 2005). However, while most JRF studies are observational, this study is one of the few that is an evaluation of an intervention; for example, it follows the evaluation of three ?Communities that Care? demonstration projects (Crow et al ., 2004). It is only the second we know of that is a randomised controlled trial, which is by far the surest way to determine effectiveness; the other was the study of the outcomes and costs of Home-Start support for young families under stress (McAuley et al. , 2004). The support given in Home-Start was very well received by parents, although it did not show any impact on parenting or child outcomes during the time period of the study.
There is a modest but growing literature in the parenting field, based on secondary analysis of randomized trials suggesting that change in observed positive parenting skill may be an important predictor of change in child outcome. Furthermore, several studies suggest that, at least in early childhood, positive rather than negative parenting may be a developmentally more important predictor of child problem behavior outcome, based on converging evidence from both randomized intervention trials and longitudinal studies of natural development. We chose to focus on overt parenting skill as a postulated intervention mechanism, because this is consistent with the theoretical underpinnings of cognitive-behavioral parenting interventions, which assume that parenting skill is the primary mechanism underlying both development and change in children?s conduct problems.