Incredible Years: All

The Incredible Years Programmes in Scotland

The Hospital Education Service provides education for children and young people attending or admitted to hospital. One of the main roles of this service is to ensure minimal disruption to children’s education during these difficult times.

This service is provided by Glasgow City Council and serves children and young people from 3 to 18 years of age from all local authorities in Scotland and, on occasion, from other areas in the United Kingdom. The service offers a range of interventions to support children and their families in addressing the additional support needs of children and young people with medical conditions and/or social, emotional and behavioural difficulties.

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The Incredible Years Series: An Internationally Evidenced Multi-modal Approach to Enhancing Child Outcomes

Webster-Stratton, C., & Bywater, T. (2019). The Incredible Years® series: An internationally evidenced multi-modal approach to enhancing child outcomes. In B. Fiese, M. Whisman, M. Celano, K. Deater-Deckard, and E. Jouriles (Eds.), APA Handbook of Contemporary Family Psychology.  This chapter provides an overview of theory and practice of The Incredible Years® Series;.
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The Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management Training: The Methods and Principles that Support Fidelity of Training Delivery

This paper focuses on the Incredible Years Teacher Training (IY TT) intervention as an example of an EBP that embeds fidelity and adaptation within its design. First, the core features of the IY TT program along with the methods and processes that make the intervention effective are described. Second, the support mechanisms (training, mentoring, consultation, and IY TT coaching) necessary to facilitate high fidelity of implementation of IY TT are highlighted. The goal is to clarify the underlying principles and layered supports needed to effectively disseminate the IY TT program to audiences with diverse backgrounds and skills who work with students with varying developmental, academic, and social-emotional needs. Often fidelity and adaptation are thought of as mutually exclusive, but in the IY model they are considered both complementary and necessary. Implications for school psychologists and prevention science are discussed.

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The Incredible Years Teacher Training: Using Coaching to Support Generalization to Real World Classroom Settings

This article focuses on the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management Training (IY TCM) intervention as an example of an evidence-based program that embeds coaching within its design. First, the core features of the IY TCM program are described. Second, the IY TCM coaching model and processes utilized to facilitate high fidelity of implementation of IY TCM by classroom teachers are highlighted. The goal is to demonstrate the use of coaching as a support system toward effective generalization of the IY TCM strategies among teachers with diverse backgrounds and skills who work with students with varying developmental, academic, and social?emotional needs. Implications for school psychologists, researchers, and implementation science are discussed.

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The Incredible Years Therapeutic Dinosaur Programme to Build Social and Emotional Competence in Welsh Primary Schools: Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial

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The aim of this paper is to present the research protocol for the randomised controlled trial (RCT) designed to primarily establish whether the IY Therapeutic Dinosaur School Programme, when delivered as a school-based targeted intervention, improves ?at risk? children?s social, emotional and behavioural competencies compared with a waiting list control condition.

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The Incredible Years Therapeutic Social and Emotional Skills Programme: A Pilot Study

Families of 97 children with early-onset conduct problems, 4 to 8 years old, were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions: a parent training treatment group (PT), a child training group (CT), a combined child and parent training group (CT + PT), or a waiting-list control group (CON). Post treatment assessments indicated that all 3 treatment conditions had resulted in significant improvements in comparison with controls. Comparisons of the 3 treatment conditions indicated that CT and CT + PT children showed significant improvements in problem solving as well as conflict management skills, as measured by observations of their interactions with a best friend; differences among treatment conditions on these measures consistently favored the CT condition over the PT condition. As for parent and child behavior at home, PT and CT + PT parents and children had significantly more positive interactions, compared with CT parents and children. One-year follow-up assessments indicated that all the significant changes noted immediately post treatment had been maintained over time. Moreover, child conduct problems at home had significantly lessened over time. Analyses of the clinical significance of the results suggested that the combined CT + PT conditions produced the most significant improvements in child behavior at 1-year follow-up.


As has become all too evident to researchers in the field as well as to the general public, the incidence of conduct problems in young children is increasing. Current estimates are that 7% to 25% of children are affected. This trend is disturbing, both in itself and in its social implications, for research has shown that the emergence of early-onset conduct problems in young children (in the form of high rates of oppositional defiant, aggressive, and noncompliant behaviors) is related to a variety of health and behavioral problems in adolescence – peer rejection, drug abuse, depression, juvenile delinquency, and school dropout (Campbell, 1991; Loeber, 1991).

In response to this growing social problem, a variety of innovative parent training interventions have been designed with the aim of reducing children’s conduct problems. The rationale for targeting parenting behavior as the primary focus of intervention arises from the considerable body of research indicating that parents of children diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD) lack certain fundamental parenting skills.

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The Incredible Years Training Series

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The Incredible Years Parents, Teachers, and Children Training Series, described in this Bulletin published by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, is designed to prevent, reduce, and treat conduct problems among children ages 2 to 10 and to increase their social competence.

OJJDP?s Family Strengthening Project has designated the Incredible Years Training Series as an exemplary best practices program. As such, the series has been subject to a quality evaluation, evidenced excellent effectiveness, and attained high overall ratings.

The Bulletin provides an overview of the Incredible Years Training Series, describes its methodologies, and summarizes program effectiveness, noting pertinent evaluations.

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The Incredible Years: A Training Series for the Prevention and Treatment of Conduct Problems in Young Children (Book Chapter)

Because Conduct Disorder becomes increasingly resistant to change over time, intervention that begins in the early school years is clearly a strategic way to prevent or reduce aggressive behavior problems. Our decision to focus our interventions o n the period consisting for preschool and early school years was based on several considerations. First, evidence suggests that children with ODD and CD are clearly identifiable at this age. Second, evidence suggests that the younger the child at the time of intervention, the more positive the child’s behavioral adjustment at home and at school. Third, the move to school – from preschool through the first years of elementary school – is a major transition and a period of great stress for many children and their parents. The child’s early success or failure in adapting to school sets the stage not only for the child’s future behavior at school and his or her relationships with teachers and peers but also for parents’ future attitudes toward their child’s schools and their own relationships with teachers and administrators.

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The Incredible Years: Evidence-Based Parenting and Child Programs For Families Involved in the Child Welfare System

This book chapter summerizes the Incredible Years Parent and Child Training Series: how to deliver IY parent and child core program principles and adapt the program with fidelity to meet the needs of intact families referred by child welfare as well as families where the children have been removed from the home. These evidence-based interventions have demonstrated ability to improve parent-child relationships and to build parents? own sense of competence and self-control as well as strengthen their supportive family and community networks. While it is not uncommon for child welfare agencies to seek briefer interventions than the Incredible Years, these families are complex and in the highest risk category for re-abuse and maltreatment if not adequately trained and supported. Data in the parenting literature support the notion that parenting curricula need to be substantial to produce sustainable effects with challenging populations (Kazdin & Mazurick, 1994). Data from the IY programs have shown that the dosage of the intervention received and fidelity with which it is delivered are directly linked to changes in parenting and child behaviors (Baydar, Reid, & Webster-Stratton, 2003; Eames et al., 2009). Our standard treatment recommendation for child welfare families referred because of abuse and neglect is a minimum of 18 2-hour parent and child group sessions delivered by accredited IY group leaders who have high levels of support and consultation.

Parent participation in the full IY program is expected to accomplish the following: improve the parent-child relationship; increase parents? sense of competence and self-control; increase the use of positive discipline strategies, predictable schedules and monitoring; and reduce the rates of harsh and physical discipline. Child participation in the full IY child program is expected to improve children?s emotional regulation, social skills and to strengthen problem-solving skills as well as attachment and trust with parents. In the long term, we expect that these improvements in parenting and parent-child relationships will lead to lower rates of re-abuse, fewer re-reports to Child Welfare Services and more academically, emotionally, and socially competent children. In order to break the intergenerational cycle of parent-child violence and neglect and child conduct problems, it is also necessary to provide enough training and support to therapists to assure program fidelity with the goal of these children getting the best parenting possible.

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The Influence of Group Training in the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management Program on Preschool Teachers’ Classroom Management Strategies

This study examined changes in preschool teachers? perceptions of classroom management strategies following group training in the recently revised Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management Program (C. Webster-Stratton, 2006). The authors used a pre/post follow-up design across 2 groups that each met for 8 sessions over an 8?10-week period for a total of 32 hr of training. Twenty-four preschool teachers from one of the lowest income and highest unemployment counties in the state of Michigan participated in the program. To examine short-term maintenance effects, the authors collected follow-up data 16 weeks after all teachers completed the training. The authors found improvements in teachers? perceptions of positive classroom management strategies and their use. Transporting this evidence-based teacher training program to schoolbased mental health service delivery settings warrants additional study.

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The Leader Observation Tool: a process skills treatment fidelity measure for the Incredible Years parenting programme Observation Tool (LOT): A process skills treatment fidelity measure for the Incredible Years Parenting Programme

photoBACKGROUND: Despite recognition of the need to deliver evidence-based programmes in the field of mental health, there is little emphasis on implementing such programmes with fidelity. Attempts by programme developers to ensure adherence to their programmes include the development of training, manuals and content scales, but these alone may be insufficient to ensure fidelity in replication. Observational measures lend themselves as a potentially useful assessment of intervention outcomes, providing accurate and objective accounts of the intervention process.

AIM: To develop a reliable and valid observational treatment fidelity tool of process skills required to deliver the Incredible Years (IY) BASIC parenting programme effectively. Methods An objective observational fidelity measure was developed to assess adherence to the IY BASIC parenting programme protocol. Observations were conducted on 12 IY BASIC parenting programme groups, attended by parents of pre-school children displaying signs of early onset conduct disorder.

RESULTS: The Leader Observation Tool (LOT) achieved high internal reliability and good code?recode and inter-rater reliability. Evidence of concurrent validity was also obtained. Conclusions Having demonstrated that the LOT is a reliable and valid measure of implementation fidelity, further research is necessary to examine the relationship between LOT scores and intervention outcome.

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The National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices (NREPP) Intervention Summary: Incredible Years Program

Incredible Years has been used in hundreds of sites in at least 15 States (Arkansas, California, Colorado, Delaware, Florida, Kansas, Ohio, Oregon, Maine, Massachusetts, Minnesota, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, and Washington). The program has also been implemented in Australia, Canada, Denmark, England, Germany, Ireland, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Russia, Scotland, Sweden, and Wales. Incredible Years research staff have trained more than 10,000 professionals worldwide. Research articles for both U.S. and non-U.S. evaluation studies are available.

The parent training intervention focuses on strengthening parenting competencies and fostering parents’ involvement in children’s school experiences to promote children’s academic and social skills and reduce delinquent behaviors. The Dinosaur child training curriculum aims to strengthen children’s social and emotional competencies, such as understanding and communicating feelings, using effective problem-solving strategies, managing anger, practicing friendship and conventional skills, and behaving appropriately in the classroom. The teacher training intervention focuses on strengthening teachers’ classroom management strategies, promoting children’s prosocial behavior and school readiness, and reducing children’s classroom aggression and noncooperation with peers and teachers. The intervention also helps teachers work with parents to support their school involvement and promote consistency between home and school. In all three training interventions, trained facilitators use videotaped scenes to structure the content and stimulate group discussions and problem solving.

Costs
The cost of implementing Incredible Years depends on the amount of training needed and the components to be implemented. One-time start-up costs include $400-$500 per leader for leader training and $1,500 per series for program materials (the cost for the child program is slightly higher due to the price of puppets). Ongoing costs include $500 annually for each leader to receive consultation, $476 for each parent in parent groups, $775 for each child in child treatment groups, $15 for each child receiving the Dinosaur curriculum in school, and $30 for each teacher receiving the teacher training.

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The National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices (NREPP) is a searchable online registry of mental health and substance abuse interventions that have been reviewed and rated by independent reviewers.

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The Parent Infant Play Observation code (PIPOc): development and testing of a new positive parenting measure

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A recent UK government-commissioned report on early intervention stated that ?what parents do is more important than who they are? (Allen, 2011, p. xiv). The report emphasised the importance of support for families at disadvantage at an early age before behavioural and social problems become entrenched and more expensive to tackle. Children classified as securely attached in the first 12 to 18 months develop better peer relationships at pre-school (Sroufre, Fox, & Pankake, 1983) and achieve better academic outcomes (Pearson et al., 2011).

The increased emphasis on investing support for families before children enter school has increased the need for assessment tools that support and encourage positive parenting. Identifying the positive parental behaviours that promote healthy child development is challenging as many of the current observational codes have been designed for parents? interactions with older children. This article describes the development of a new observational code to analyse the behaviour of mothers playing with their baby in the first 18 months. The six predetermined positive parenting behaviours are analysed using video recordings from the home. Practitioners can be trained to use the code and a manual facilitates future researchers and clinicians to evaluate parent behaviour with their infant in a natural environment and with minimal disturbance to the family.

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The Qualitative Interactions of Children With Conduct Problems and Their Peers: Differential Correlates With Self-Report Measures, Home Behavior, and School Behavior Problems


This study examined qualitative aspects of the peer relationships of children with conduct problems in a laboratory assessment procedure. The sample consisted of 101 children aged 4 to 7 years identified by parents as having oppositional behavior problems. Positive social skills and negative conflict tactics were coded. Additionally, two categories assessing the reciprocal nature of the relationship were also coded, including behavioral “escalation” and “failure” to use social skills successfully with peers. Relations between observed peer interactions, child self-reports of peer relationships, observed and parent reports of home behavior interactions, and teacher reports of school behaviors were examined. Positive skills and failure to use skills with peers were related to loneliness and teacher reports of social competence, whereas negative behavior and escalation with peers were associated with school problems and home problems, respectively. Results are discussed in a developmental framework that highlights the potential importance of social behaviors within the peer context to later adjustment.

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The Role of Parental Stress in Physically Abusive Families


This study examines the role of several components of parental stress in physically abusive and nonabusive families with conduct-disordered children. The 123 families studied were seen in a parenting clinic aimed at improving parent-child interactions in families with a highly oppositional child. Parent stress was found to play in important role in abusive families. Physically abusive families were significantly more often low income, had younger mothers with less education, more frequently reported a family history of child abuse, and were more likely to be abusing alcohol or drugs.

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The Role of Time-Out in a Comprehensive Approach for Addressing Challenging Behaviors of Preschool Children

This What Works Brief is part of a continuing series of short, easy-to-read, ‘how to’ information packets on a variety of evidence-based practices, strategies, and intervention procedures. The Briefs are designed to help teachers and other caregivers support young children?s social and emotional development. In-service providers and others who conduct staff development activities should find them especially useful in sharing information with professionals and parents. The Briefs include examples and vignettes that illustrate how practical strategies might be used in a variety of early childhood settings and home environments.

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La funci?n del ?tiempo de descanso? como uno de los m?todos para tratar los comportamientos desafiantes de ni?os preescolares
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The Role of University-Community Partnerships in Promoting Effective, Sustainable Practice Under Real World Conditions


Challenges to delivering evidence-based practice in the “real world” have the potential to undermine their acceptance, efficacy, and sustainability in community settings. The Incredible Years Series is one preventive intervention with demonstrated effectiveness in settings facing multiple dissemination challenges, including Head Start. We established a university-community partnership to deliver Incredible Years Series in a local Head Start, including the Teacher Classroom Management Training Program and the Child Dina Classroom Training Program.

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The Self-Administered Incredible Years Parent Training Program: Perceived Effectiveness, Acceptability, and Integrity With Children Exhibiting Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (Implementation article also)

ABSTRACT: This study examined the perceived effectiveness, acceptability, and integrity of the self-administered format of the Incredible Years Parent Training Program, for children exhibiting behaviors associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. To assess perceived effectiveness, an AB pretest-posttest design was used across 10 weeks. Improvements in parents’ rating of adaptive skills were replicated across five participants.

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The Webster-Stratton Incredible Years Basic Parenting Programme: Parental Satisfaction in a Community Group of Portuguese Parents


A powerpoint presentation of a study in Portugal with control group evaluating IY parent program. And a research poster of the study.

Location: Centro de Psicopedadogia, a research Centre based at the Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences of the University of Coimbra, Portugal.

History: In October 2003 a team had the first training in the delivery of the IY Basic with an US trainer at the Centro de Psicopedagogia.

Translation and adaptation to Portuguese of all the IY Basic materials (including the DVD?s sub-titles and the translation of the manual and of the book for parents).

In 2007 the first IY Basic group was delivered by the two authors.

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Transporting an Evidence-Based Classroom Management Program for Preschoolers With Disruptive Behavior Problems to a School: An Analysis of Implementation, Outcomes, and Contextual Variables

There has never been a time in the history of education and psychology when there has been a stronger emphasis on the use of evidence-based interventions (EBIs) in mental health and educational settings (Chambers, Ringeisen, & Hickman, 2005; Kratochwill & Stoiber, 2002). EBIs are well-developed interventions in which highly regarded scientific methods have established a program as effective. In the field of education, federal, state, and local governments reportedly spend over $330 billion per year on public education, including significant investments in educational interventions and professional development activities (Slavin & Fashola, 1998). Despite these expenditures, many school-based interventions have been inadequately researched or found to be ineffective (Kavale & Forness, 1999). Teacher training was specifically identified by the Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy (2002) as a domain in which existing practices have rarely been tested using rigorous scientific methods. Today, however, rising standards, accountability requirements, and national education legislation require that educational policies and practices are based on strong research evidence.

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Treating Children With Early-Onset Conduct Problems: Intervention Outcomes for Parent, Child, and Teacher Training

Families of 159, 4- to 8-year-old children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) were randomly assigned to parent training (PT); parent plus teacher training (PT + TT); child training (CT); child plus teacher training (CT + TT); parent, child, plus teacher training (PT + CT + TT); or a waiting list control. Reports and independent observations were collected at home and school. Following the 6-month intervention, all treatments resulted in significantly fewer conduct problems with mothers, teachers, and peers compared to controls. Children?s negative behavior with fathers was lower in the 3 PT conditions than in control. Children showed more prosocial skills with peers in the CT conditions than in control. All PT conditions resulted in less negative and more positive parenting for mothers and less negative parenting for fathers than in control. Mothers and teachers were also less negative than controls when children received CT. Adding TT to PT or CT improved treatment outcome in terms of teacher behavior management in the classroom and in reports of behavior problems./p>

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Treating Children with Early-onset Conduct Problems: Key Ingredients to Implementing The Incredible Years Programs with Fidelity

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It is essential that sound theory and research support new treatment and that procedures are described elearly and are followed closely. This chapter describes the training, supervisory and organizational requirements to implement the Incredible Years (IY) Training Series to prevent and to treat early onset of conduct problems in children. Five key elements are identified and descussed.

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Treating Oppositional Defiant Disorder in primary care: A comparison of three models

Objective – To determine if a nurse-led or psychologist-led parent-training program was more successful than a minimal intervention in treating early childhood Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) in pediatric primary care.

The present study compared three models of intervention: an office model, with primary care nurses providing a moderately intensive parent training program; a referral model, with clinical child psychologists providing the same parent training, and a minimal intervention treatment without therapist contact. The Webster-Stratton parent training program we used has considerable empirical support and its videotape-based program seemed suitable for use by nonmental health professionals.

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Treatment Fidelity as a Predictor of Behaviour Change in Parents Attending Group-based Parent Training

The current study aims to investigate if LOT skills subgroups predict change in parenting behaviour, for parents with preschool children at risk of developing CD who attended IY PT groups within Sure Start areas in North and MidWales and the borders (see Hutchings et al. 2007 for full details of the trial). The hypotheses are twofold. First, it is predicted that greater exposure will produce greater change in observed positive parenting behaviours and change in self-reported parenting style. Second, it is hypothesized that observed change in positive parenting will predict change in observed child outcome scores, and change in parent-reported parenting style will predict change in parent-reported child behaviour problems.

Abstract

Background: Change in parenting skills, particularly increased positive parenting, has been identified as the key component of successful evidence-based parent training (PT), playing a causal role in subsequent child behaviour change for both prevention and treatment of Conduct Disorder. The amount of change in parenting skills observed after PT varies and may be accounted for by both the content of the programme and by the level of PT implementer process skills. Such variation in implementer skills is an important component in the assessment of treatment fidelity, itself an essential factor in successful intervention outcome.

Aims: To establish whether the Leader Observation Tool, a reliable and valid process skills fidelity measure, can predict change in parenting skills after attendance on the Incredible Years PT programme.

Results: Positive leader skills categories of the Leader Observation Tool significantly predicted change in both parent-reported and independently observed parenting skills behaviour, which in turn, predicted change in child behaviour outcome.

Conclusions: Delivering an intervention with a high level of treatment fidelity not only preserves the behaviour change mechanisms of the intervention, but can also predict parental behaviour change, which itself predicts child behaviour change as a result of treatment.

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Treatment of oppositional defiant and conduct problems in young Norwegian children: Results of a randomized controlled trial

Abstract – The efficacy of the Incredible Years parent training and child therapy programs was examined in a randomized controlled study including 127 Norwegian children aged 4?8 years. Children diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD) were randomized to parent training (PT), parent training combined with child therapy (PT + CT), or a waiting-list control condition (WLC). Assessments were carried out at baseline, posttreatment and at a one-year follow-up using standardized measures and a semi-structured interview. Both active treatment conditions reduced child conduct problems posttreatment as opposed to the WLC, while differences between the two treatment conditions were small and nonsignificant. About two thirds of the treated children functioned within normal variation after treatment, and the same proportion no longer received an ODD diagnosis at the one-year follow-up. Parental use of positive strategies increased after treatment, and the use of harsh and inconsistent discipline decreased as did mother experience of stress. The outcome of this study emphasizes the importance of offering parent training to young children with severe conduct problems exhibited at home. The findings and usefulness of the Incredible Years program in the present Norwegian replication study further support and extend positive outcomes of previous controlled trials conducted primarily in Anglo-Saxon ountries.

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Troubled Families Problem Children (Book: Chapter 4)

There is a rather large body of literature describing the content of parent training programs. For example, strategies such as Time Out, Beta Commands, Praise, Differential Attention, Response Cost, and so on, along with the behavioral principles that underlie them, have been carefully described in detail. But descriptions of the content of parent training do not elucidate the mechanisms or ongoing processes of parent training-that is, the processes and strategies which therapists can use to try to change or modify parents; behaviors, attitudes, and practices- and the literature contains comparatively little discussion of the actual therapeutic processes utilized by therapists in such intervention programs.

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Use of Coaching and Behavior Support Planning for Students With Disruptive Behavior Within a Universal Classroom Management Program


Even with the use of effective universal classroom management practices, some students will need additional behavioral supports. However, to translate implementation of new strategies into the classroom, professional development programs need to be adaptive to the complexities teachers face in providing instruction and managing classroom behaviors among diverse learners. Teachers also need support to successfully implement universal practices as well as to develop and enact plans for supporting students with disruptive behavior. This article describes a universal classroom management program that embeds coaching within the model. The coach supported teachers both in implementing universal strategies and in developing and implementing behavior support plans for students with disruptive behavior. The study evaluates the effectiveness of the behavior support plans and the types of coaching activities used to support these plans. Findings indicated that during meetings with teachers, coaches spent time action planning and providing performance feedback to teachers on their implementation of the behavior support plans. In addition, teachers reduced their rate of reprimands with the targeted at-risk students. Students receiving behavioral supports demonstrated decreased rates of disruptive behavior, increased prosocial behavior, and a trend toward improved on-task behavior. In comparison, a matched sample of students with disruptive behaviors did not demonstrate improved outcomes. Implications for practice are discussed.

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Using Mental Health Consultation to Decrease Disruptive Behaviors in Preschoolers: Adapting an Empirically-Supported Intervention

Impulsivity, hyperactivity, oppositionality, and aggression are behaviors that most three-and fouryear-old children display to some degree with up to 10 to 20% of preschoolers exhibiting these behaviors at significant levels at home or at preschool/day care.

This study provides an important first step in providing evidence to support the adaptation of empirically-supported interventions for use in mental health consultation when providing services to preschoolers with disruptive behavior problems. This study suggests that these interventions can be effectively exported from controlled clinical settings into community settings. These results will need to be replicated by training professionals already providing mental health consultation within the preschool setting to incorporate the use of the empirically-supported strategies into their everyday work with teachers and children. Having mental health consultation that includes empirically-supported interventions delivered within this collaborative framework available as part of the array of services will likely reduce the need for more costly treatments in the future.

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Videotape Modeling: A Method of Parent Education


This paper has three general aims. The first is to review briefly some of the current research on performance-training methods so as to provide evidence of the benefit of using videotape modeling for parent training. The second aim is to describe the guidelines for developing and using a videotape modeling program. The third aim is to describe the content of one such program which was developed and researched by the author at the University of Washington.

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Washington State Child Welfare Report: Delivering of Incredible Years Parenting Program


From 2007-2009 the Washington State Child Welfare office has funded the training of family support workers and delivery of the evidence-based Incredible Years parenting program to families who had been referred to them for child abuse and neglect. Most of these families were classified as open cases and the program was highly recommended to them while other families were mandated to take the program. A total of 15 separate groups were offered throughout Snohomish, Whatcom, and Skagit counties with the average size of parent groups ranging from 10-19 participants.

Parents completed baseline measures and post-treatment assessments of parenting stress and child behavior problems. After treatment parents also completed program evaluations. These measures are described in this report.

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What makes Parenting Programmes Work in Disadvantaged Areas? (The PALS Trial)

Ensuring that a child is brought up experiencing warmth, love and encouragement within safe boundaries is far harder for parents who live in the stressful conditions found in poor neighbourhoods. Children raised in poverty do less well than children raised in more favourable circumstances on a range of measures of attainment and quality of life. Yet, if the emotional quality of a child?s upbringing is good, then the evidence is clear that children can succeed despite starting in less favourable conditions. This report describes an evaluation of what factors make an intervention effective in helping parents in one of the poorest parts of Britain give their children a better start in life.

This study investigated the factors that affect the impact of an intervention programme for parents of five and six year olds, and was called the Primary Age Learning Study (PALS). The aims of this study continue the tradition of other studies published by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation (JRF) on related topics, including recently Routes out of Poverty: A Research Review (Kemp et al. , 2004), Migration and Mobility: The Life Chances of Britain?s Minority Ethnic Communities (Platt, 2005) and Anti-social Behaviour Strategies: Finding a Balance (Millie et al. , 2005). However, while most JRF studies are observational, this study is one of the few that is an evaluation of an intervention; for example, it follows the evaluation of three ?Communities that Care? demonstration projects (Crow et al ., 2004). It is only the second we know of that is a randomised controlled trial, which is by far the surest way to determine effectiveness; the other was the study of the outcomes and costs of Home-Start support for young families under stress (McAuley et al. , 2004). The support given in Home-Start was very well received by parents, although it did not show any impact on parenting or child outcomes during the time period of the study.

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What really happens in parent training?

The need to help families with conduct-disordered children is particularly urgent, for these “aggressive” children are at increased risk for being abused by their parents, as well as for school dropout, alcoholism, drug abuse, juvenile delinquency, adult crime, antisocial personality, marital disruption, interpersonal problems, and poor physical health. Thus in the absence of treatment, the long-term outlook for conduct-problem children is poor.

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Who Benefits and How Does It Work? Moderators and Mediators of Outcome in an Effectiveness Trial of a Parenting Intervention

There is a modest but growing literature in the parenting field, based on secondary analysis of randomized trials suggesting that change in observed positive parenting skill may be an important predictor of change in child outcome. Furthermore, several studies suggest that, at least in early childhood, positive rather than negative parenting may be a developmentally more important predictor of child problem behavior outcome, based on converging evidence from both randomized intervention trials and longitudinal studies of natural development. We chose to focus on overt parenting skill as a postulated intervention mechanism, because this is consistent with the theoretical underpinnings of cognitive-behavioral parenting interventions, which assume that parenting skill is the primary mechanism underlying both development and change in children?s conduct problems.

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